Author Topic: Walking around corfu  (Read 319952 times)

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Offline kevin-beverly

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Re: Walking around corfu
« Reply #675 on: October 18, 2022, 10:13:41 AM »


Some of you may find this insect wonderful and fascinating And others can not stand them

Crimson-speckled flunkey

Utetheisa pulchella
Also known by Other common names are crimson-speckled footman crimson-speckled moth  is a moth of the family Erebidae.

But not to be confused with the heliotrope moth Utetheisa pulchelloides  is an Indo-Australian species  including Borneo, Hong Kong, New Zealand, Papua, Seychelles, most of They look the same photo at bottom

The wingspan of Utetheisa pulchella can reach 29–42 mm. The front wings are narrow, white or cream coloured with a variable pattern of numerous small black spots located between the larger-sized bright red spots. Sometimes the red spots are merged to transversal bands. The hindwings are wide, white, with an irregular black border along the outer edge and two black markings in the middle of the cell. The head and thorax range from cream colour to buff yellow, with the same pattern as the wings. The antennae are long and monofiliform. The abdomen is smooth, with a white background.
Caterpillars are warty, dark brown or greyish, with tufts of greyish hairs, an orange crossline on each segment, a wide whitish line along the back and two other lateral white lines.

Scientific classificationedit
Kingdom:   Animalia
Phylum:   Arthropoda
Class:   Insecta
Order:   Lepidoptera
Superfamily:   Noctuoidea
Family:   Erebidae
Subfamily:   Arctiinae
Genus:   Utetheisa
Species:   U. pulchella
Binomial name
Utetheisa pulchella

An unmistakable species that is both common and widespread in Europe but unfortunately only a sporadic migrant to the British Isles with less than 200 records in the last century.
The moth occurs naturally in the Mediterranean and North Africa, and most immigrants are presumed to have originated there, typically arriving with plumes of warm air during the summer or autumn. Attracted to light but also flies during the day when it is easily disturbed.

In Europe, these moths inhabit dry open places, meadows, shrublands, grasslands and even parks and gardens but in the UK most sightings are confined to the coastline of southern counties.
This species in southern Europe overwinters as a caterpillar. Pupation occurs on the ground near the host plants, usually on fallen leaves and dead vegetation, or pieces of bark and old wood. During mild winters in temperate and typically Mediterranean climates this species hibernates as pupae. Adults of this multivoltine species usually are present from March to early November in three generations a year, but in the tropics, they develop continuously. They fly both day and night and come to light. The polyphagous larvae feed on a range of herbaceous plants, mainly on forget-me-not (Myosotis), Echium, Borago officinalis, Solanum, Plantago lanceolata and Anchusa species. In the Afrotropical realm they mainly feed on Trichodesma zeylanicum, Lithospermum, Heliotropium, Trichodesma and Gossypium species.
Due to their food, the caterpillars accumulate a large amount of alkaloids, consequently also the moths are toxic and unpalatable to birds. The characteristic colouration of its wings serve as a sign of warning to their predators (aposematism).

This moth can be seen on Corfu

                                                            Heliotrope moth  Utetheisa pulchelloides
I cannot tell the difference

Offline kevin-beverly

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Re: Walking around corfu
« Reply #676 on: November 01, 2022, 10:32:38 AM »


Has anyone been down to Wetland of Alyki Lefkimmi and seen the wild life here is a bird no Neil the Feather type

Are a type of wading bird in the family Phoenicopteridae, which is the only extant family in the order Phoenicopteriformes. There are four flamingo species distributed throughout the Americas (including the Caribbean), and two species native to Afro-Eurasia.
A group of flamingoes is called a "flamboyance.
The name flamingo comes from Portuguese or Spanish flamengo ("flame-colored"), which in turn comes from Provençal flamenc – a combination of flama ("flame") and a Germanic-like suffix -ing. The word may also have been influenced by the Spanish ethnonym flamenco ("Fleming" or "Flemish"). The name of the genus, Phoenicopterus, is from the Greek φοινικόπτερος phoinikopteros, lit. 'crimson/red-feathered');[ other genera names include Phoeniconaias, which means "crimson/red water nymph (or naiad)", and Phoenicoparrus, which means "crimson/red bird (though, an unknown bird of omen)".

Scientific classificatione
Kingdom:   Animalia
Phylum:   Chordata
Class:   Aves
Order:   Phoenicopteriformes
Family:   Phoenicopteridae

Corfu Flamingos
Hundreds of migrating flamingos have added a dash of vibrant color to Lefkimmi lagoon in Corfu during their annual stopover in northwestern Greece. The magnificent spectacle, signifying the arrival of Spring, attracts birdwatchers and scientists who want to get a glimpse of these rare visitors.
The director of the Environmental Education Center of Lefkimmi, Alekos Vlassis, says the birds have been visiting the wetlands for the last 10 years.
The wetlands are part of a protected area, offer an ideal temperature and plenty of food for the flamingos.
Flamingos are animals of unparalleled beauty, often living for over 30 years. They can reach a height of about 1.60 meters (5.2 feet) and their weight can reach 3.5 kilograms (7.7 lbs). Their most-striking feature is their iridescent color, which is mostly pink.
Vlassis says the priority of the Environmental Education Centre is the protection of the pink flamingos and the other rare birds that visit Corfu every year. Many, unfortunately, often fall victim to poachers.

The flamingo's most characteristic habitats are large alkaline or saline lakes or estuarine lagoons that usually lack vegetation. Lakes may be far inland or near the sea. A variety of habitats are used by flamingos: mangrove swamps, tidal flats, and sandy islands in the intertidal zone.

Flamingo colonies may breed at different times of the year. Breeding success is based on synchronous nesting of a flamingo colony so that chicks of a colony hatch around the same time in any one year. Colonies very rarely nest more than once a year.

Flamingo nests are made of mud.
A flamingo’s nest looks like a mini mud volcano, with room for one large egg. Flamingos are monogamous, and mom and dad are team players. Both help to build the nest and incubate the egg. Flamingo chicks hatch with white-gray, downy feathers and straight bills. It takes several years for them to acquire their signature pink color and hook-shaped bills.

Flamingos get their pink color from their food.
Flamingos really are what they eat. Many plants produce natural red, yellow or orange pigments, called carotenoids. Carotenoids give carrots their orange color or turn ripe tomatoes red. They are also found in the microscopic algae that brine shrimp eat. As a flamingo dines on algae and brine shrimp, its body metabolizes the pigments — turning its feathers pink.

Flamingos are filter feeders and turn their heads “upside down” to eat.
The term filter feeder may conjure images of baleen whales or oyster reefs, but flamingos are filter feeders too. They eat algae, small seeds, tiny crustaceans (like brine shrimp), fly larvae, and other plants and animals that live in shallow waters.
When it’s time to eat, a flamingo will place its head upside down in the water with its bill pointed at its feet. It then sweeps its head side-to-side, using its tongue to pump water in and out of its bill. Comb-like plates along the edge of the bill create a filter for water to rush out, while trapping food inside.

A group of flamingos is called a flamboyance.
A group of crows is called a murder, and a group of geese is called a gaggle. So, what is a group of flamingos called? A flamboyance! Other collective nouns for flamingos include stand, colony and pat.

There are six flamingo species.
In addition to Caribbean flamingos, there are lesser, greater, James’s (or Puna), Chilean and Andean flamingos. Greater flamingos are found in parts of Africa, Asia, and Europe. They are the largest and tallest flamingo species.
Chilean, Andean, and James’s flamingos are found only in South America. Andean flamingos are the rarest of the six species, with fewer than 40,000 birds. Lesser flamingos are found in parts of Africa and southern Asia. They are the smallest flamingos and the most abundant. There are more than 2 million lesser flamingos brightening skies and shores with their pink plumage.

Don’t let your eyes deceive you — a flamingo’s knees don’t bend backward!
Flamingo legs actually bend just like human legs. What looks like a flamingo's knee is really its ankle joint. A flamingo’s knees are located higher up the legs, hidden by the body and feathers. Confused? Think of a flamingo as standing on tiptoe. When the leg bends, it’s the ankle you see hinging.

Some flamingos live in extreme environments.
Flamingos are typically found in shallow saltwater or brackish waters (where saltwater and freshwater mix). But some flamingo species breed and raise their young in extremely salty bodies of water, called alkaline or “soda” lakes. The high concentration of carbonate salts in these lakes is so corrosive that it can burn the skin, making the water uninhabitable for most animals.
Researchers are still uncovering the unique aspects of a flamingo’s physiology — like tough leg skin — that help it survive such harsh waters. The high salt can still be deadly for some flamingo chicks if salt rings build up on their legs, making it impossible for them to walk.

Flamingo parents feed their chicks a liquid they secrete, called crop milk.
A flamingo’s “milk” is produced in its crop (part of its throat) and then brought up through its mouth. It may sound icky, but a flamingo’s crop milk is chock-full of healthy proteins and fats. Both parents can produce crop milk to feed a flamingo chick until it is old enough to eat on its own.

Yes, flamingos can fly.
You may be used to seeing flamingos gathered in large groups on the ground, but they also take flight. Some flamingos will travel to breed, migrate to a new body of water as seasons change, or move to warmer, lower-altitude areas for the winter. If flamingos are traveling long distances, they often go by night.

Flamingos can sleep standing on one leg.
Flamingos can stand on one foot for long periods of time — even long enough to fall asleep. But, why do they perform this balancing act? Research suggests that flamingos use more muscle power when standing on two legs, so standing on one leg may be less tiring.
Scientists also believe that a one-legged stance may help flamingos stay warm. Birds lose body heat through their limbs. By standing on one leg and tucking the other under their belly, flamingos can limit the amount of heat that escapes through their legs and feet.

Flamingos spend most of the day feeding, preening (distributing oil from a gland at the base of their tail to their feathers for waterproofing), resting, and bathing. Breeding birds feed day or night. Non-breeding birds feed at night and spend the day sleeping or involved in activities such as preening and bathing.


Offline kevin-beverly

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Re: Walking around corfu
« Reply #677 on: November 09, 2022, 12:21:12 PM »


You may have see this bird on your travels on Corfu

Eurasian hoopoe

 Is the most widespread species of the genus Upupa. It is a distinctive cinnamon coloured bird with black and white wings, a tall erectile crest, a broad white band across a black tail, and a long narrow downcurved bill.
 It is native to Europe, Asia and the northern half of Africa. It is migratory in the northern part of its range. It spends most of the time on the ground probing for grubs and insects.

The Madagascar hoopoe (Upupa marginata) is a species of hoopoe in the family Upupidae. It was previously considered a subspecies (Upupa epops marginata) of the hoopoe, but was split due to its vocalisations and small differences in plumage. Some taxonomists still consider all three species conspecific. Some authorities also keep the African and Eurasian hoopoe together, but split the Madagascar hoopoe. It is endemic to Madagascar,[ where its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical dry forest. It is a common bird and the International Union for Conservation of Nature considers its conservation status to be of least concern.

 The clutch of seven to eight eggs is laid in an existing cavity. The eggs are incubated by the female and hatch asynchronously.
The Eurasian hoopoe was formally described in 1758 by the Swedish naturalist Carl Linnaeus in the tenth edition of his Systema Naturae.

Conservation status
Scientific classificationedit
Kingdom:   Animalia
Phylum:   Chordata
Class:   Aves
Order:   Bucerotiformes
Family:   Upupidae
Genus:   Upupa
Species:   U. epops
Binomial name
Upupa epops

The specific epithet epops in the Ancient Greek word for a hoopoe.

The Eurasian hoopoe is a medium-sized bird, 25–32 cm (9.8–12.6 in) long, with a 44–48 cm (17–19 in) wingspan. It weighs 46–89 g (1.6–3.1 oz). The species is highly distinctive, with a long, thin tapering bill that is black with a fawn base. The strengthened musculature of the head allows the bill to be opened when probing inside the soil. The hoopoe has broad and rounded wings capable of strong flight; these are larger in the northern migratory subspecies. The hoopoe has a characteristic undulating flight, which is like that of a giant butterfly, caused by the wings half closing at the end of each beat or short sequence of beats. Adults may begin their moult after the breeding season and continue after they have migrated for the winter.

The call is typically a trisyllabic oop-oop-oop, [i will put the call on at end] which may give rise to its English and scientific names, although two and four syllables are also common. An alternative explanation of the English and scientific names is that they are derived from the French name for the bird, huppée, which means crested. In the Himalayas, the calls can be confused with that of the Himalayan cuckoo (Cuculus saturatus), although the cuckoo typically produces four notes. Other calls include rasping croaks, when alarmed, and hisses. Females produce a wheezy note during courtship feeding by the male.

The Eurasian hoopoe is widespread in Europe,  requirements can be provided in a wide range of ecosystems, and as a consequence the hoopoe inhabits a wide range of habitats such as heathland, wooded steppes, savannas and grasslands, as well as forest glades.
And on Corfu Lake Korission  bare or lightly vegetated ground on which to forage and vertical surfaces with cavities (such as trees, cliffs or even walls, nestboxes, haystacks, and abandoned burrows which to nest.

In what was long thought to be a defensive posture, hoopoes sunbathe by spreading out their wings and tail low against the ground and tilting their head up; they often fold their wings and preen halfway through. They also enjoy taking dust and sand baths.

 hoopoe is mostly composed of insects, although small reptiles, frogs and plant matter such as seeds and berries are sometimes taken as well. It is a solitary forager which typically feeds on the ground. More rarely they will feed in the air, where their strong and rounded wings make them fast and manoeuvrable, in pursuit of numerous swarming insects. More commonly their foraging style is to stride over relatively open ground and periodically pause to probe the ground with the full length of their bill. Insect larvae, pupae and mole crickets are detected by the bill and either extracted or dug out with the strong feet. Hoopoes will also feed on insects on the surface, probe into piles of leaves, and even use the bill to lever large stones and flake off bark. Common diet items include crickets, locusts, beetles, earwigs, cicadas, ant lions, bugs and ants. These can range from 10 to 150 mm length, with a preferred prey size of around 20–30 mm. Larger prey items are beaten against the ground or a preferred stone to kill them and remove indigestible body parts such as wings and legs.

The diet of the Eurasian hoopoe includes many species considered by humans to be pests, such as the pupae of the processionary moth, a damaging forest pest. For this reason the species is afforded protection under the law in many countries.

The hoopoe is the king of the birds in the Ancient Greek comedy The Birds by Aristophanes. In Ovid's Metamorphoses, book 6, King Tereus of Thrace rapes Philomela, his wife Procne's sister, and cuts out her tongue. In revenge, Procne kills their son Itys and serves him as a stew to his father. When Tereus sees the boy's head, which is served on a platter, he grabs a sword but just as he attempts to kill the sisters, they are turned into birds—Procne into a swallow and Philomela into a nightingale. Tereus himself is turned into an epops (6.674), translated as lapwing by Dryden[32] and lappewincke (lappewinge) by John Gower in his Confessio Amantis, or hoopoe in A. S. Kline's translation. The bird's crest indicates his royal status, and his long, sharp beak is a symbol of his violent nature. English translators and poets probably had the northern lapwing in mind, considering its crest.

The hoopoe was chosen as the national bird of Israel in May 2008 in conjunction with the country's 60th anniversary, following a national survey of 155,000 citizens, outpolling the white-spectacled bulbul. The hoopoe appears on the Logo of the University of Johannesburg and is the official mascot of the University's sports. The municipalities of Armstedt and Brechten, Germany, have hoopoes in their coats of arms.

In Morocco, hoopoes are traded live and as medicinal products in the markets, primarily in herbalist shops. This trade is unregulated and a potential threat to local populations

Three CGI enhanced hoopoes, together with other birds collectively named "the tittifers", are often shown whistling a song in the BBC children's television series In the Night Garden....


Offline Erja

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Re: Walking around corfu
« Reply #678 on: November 09, 2022, 05:59:27 PM »
What a handsome bird with option to go full on Punk :D
Life is good ;)

Offline kevin-beverly

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Re: Walking around corfu
« Reply #679 on: December 05, 2022, 11:27:16 AM »


I know i am not the only one interested in nature. Corfu has a bundle of forner and flora Due to the Corfiots love of hunting most species of birds on the island shun human contact and might not be as abundant as in other parts of Europe therefore you have to work hard to observe them but worthwhile

Some places you can see  multitude of birds, reptiles, amphibians and fish.

Airport lagoon

 In excess of 150 separate species have been catalogued on Corfu, some as migrants, and some quite rare. Certain species however are plentiful, whether this is because of their unsuitability for the pot or superstition is unknown. Throughout the island there are various habitat types, all within
easy driving distance of each other. Just to wet your appetite some of those sites include
Unusual in its closeness to the airport, your plane will land on what is reclaimed land on the lagoon. There are almost always a number of Little Egrets, Grey Herons and sometimes the Great white heron, Cormorants and possibly Pygmy Cormorants, Terns and Marsh Harrier to name but a few.
Note: EU funding has been secured to provide a nature trail and bird watching facilities on the lagoon.

Antiniotis Lagoon

Lake Antiniotissa or Antinioti, sometimes known as Antinioti Lagoon, is a small brackish lake on the north-east coast of Corfu, Greece near Agios Spyridon beach. It is an important wetland area and lies within a Natura 2000 nature protection area of 188 hectares
The area is full of wildflowers and reeds as well as aquatic plants that are unique. The biodiversity of this area is of particular interest due to the existence of a unique bird fauna which includes, in addition to the endangered aquatic and marine species, predatory species.
More than 90 species of endemic and migratory birds have been recorded by scientists in the Antinioti lagoon, including herons and cormorants. - Copied from
The lagoon marsh turtles belong to the families Emys orbicularis and Mauremys caspica and are important fauna elements of the Mediterranean wetlands.
In the Antinioti lagoon you can find sixteen different species of orchids such as Opphrys, Orchis and Serapias. The lagoon is also famous for its large fish farm, which uses traditional fishing methods. The species of fish caught in the lake are mainly eels, mullets, and sea bass.
The Antinioti lagoon is connected to the sea with two mouths (estuaries), while in the southeast of the lake there are springs of fresh water. Antinioti lagoon attracts tourists, especially during the summer months as it offers an excellent landscape for touring. - Copied from

The Ropa Valley

This is the remains of a long dried out lagoon and spring would be the best time of the year to make a visit here. If you are lucky you can see quite a variety of species due to the fertility of the land and the changing terrain surrounding it. Rivers, streams and drainage ditches, many abundant in wildlife, crisscross the valley.
which stretches across a plain of about 2,500 acres in central Corfu was once  a lake but now, having been drained, it is covered with a network of drainage ditches and canals which carry away the rainwater from the surrounding hills into the Ropa or Ermones River and then into the sea. The valley is an important wetlands habitat, home to a multitude of birds, reptiles, amphibians and fish. The amphibians include freshwater terrapins, which can be seen in the river which runs beside the golf course, along with hundreds of bullfrogs. There are also many kinds of small mammal such as weasels, foxes, hedgehogs and otters. Today it house the local Golf Club.

Lefkimmi Salt Pans

Now disused and returning to nature. This is quite a large area and provides an undisturbed breeding ground for a number of species including waterfowl, Shorebirds, warblers Pipits etc.
If you were really lucky you might spot Flamingo’s, a flock was seen in summer 2006, flying offshore only to divert to the saltwater marsh near Igoumenitsa on the mainland.
During the hottest summer months much of this area resembles a desert landscape and it is easy to imagine it in its original working state. Therefore early spring and autumn would undoubtedly be the best time to visit.
The surrounding reed beds, ditches and saltwater marsh/lagoon harbour most of the wildlife.
The Saltmarsh of Lefkimmi is located about 2,9 km north of Lefkimmi, in Corfu. It is a peninsula, of an area of 1500 acres, which is located in southern Corfu, near the homonymous large village.
The Saltmarsh of Lefkimmi were already known from the 16th century and they operated, with stoppage during some periods, until 1988, the last year that produced salt . But, until then the area was very well organized, with at least 80 salt wells, salt warehouses, ditches and corridors. The large, central lake was the space where the sea water was saved, while on the north-eastern end of the Saltmarshes of Lefkimmi you can see the V.O.R. (Very high frequency (VHF) Omnidirectional Range).
The Saltmarsh of Lefkimmi have been included in the network Natura 2000, mainly because of the avifauna that they host: More than 180 bird species are recorded in the region. Common Shelducks, brown headed gulls, gulls, Black-winged Stilts, Kentish plovers, little terns, Curlew sandpipers, little stints and flamingos, with their largest number recorded in May 2011 – more than 3,000.
 Today anyone can visit the Saltmarsh of Lefkimmi in order to enjoy the natural beauty of the landscape, the historicity of the area but, also to swim in the beach that is created by the sandy shores. Its waters are calm and clean, while the quiet of the region will impress you.

Lake Korission
on the south west of Corfu Lake Korission is separated from the sea by a strip of sand dunes, this area is relatively untouched by human activity.  Egrets, Gulls, Waterfowl, Harriers, Kingfishers, Warblers, Hoopoe and a great variety of migrants can be sighted here during the spring and autumn migration. The Eastern shoreline is quieter, has more vegetation and probably the best place to sight birds.
Korission Lagoon is a coastal lagoon located in the southern part of the Greek island of Corfu, in the Ionian Sea. It is located near the village of Agios Mattheos and is separated from the sea by Chalikouna Beach.
The Lake is over 5km long from one end to the other and roughly 1.5km across as its widest point making it around 24 square kilometres in area, naturally this means that Lake Korission is home to a vast amount of both native and migrating birds including, seagulls, Owls, buzzards, swallows and if you’re lucky, flamingos.
Lake Korission is the perfect place for a long walk but remember to bring supplies with you as there are no facilities other than those on the beach and if you’re walking in the summer you will definitely need some refreshments.

Pantokrator Mountain
Because Pantocrator is the highest peak on Corfu on a clear day (most days) the whole island is visible from the summit as are the Albanian and mainland Greek coastlines. Bird life although sparse is quite interesting and varied.
Eagles, Kites and Buzzards patrol the skies while Falcons and Kestrels can also be seen pursuing their quarry. Blue Rock Thrush, Black Redstarts and Cirl Buntings are regularly seen here and obviously the lower foothills have a greater variety of species.

Here is some of the Birds and Reptiles you may see

 Terrapins, frogs and snakes

Bar-tailed Godwit
Black Redstart
Black Stork
Black-eared Wheatear
Black-headed Gull
Blue Rock Thrush
Blue Tit
Booted Eagle
Cetti's Warbler
Chiffchaff    (heard only)
Cirl Bunting
Collared Dove
Common Buzzard
Common Kestrel
Common Kingfisher
Common Redshank
Common Sandpiper
Common Whitethroat
Corn Bunting
Cory's Shearwater
Crested Lark
Curlew Sandpiper
Eleonora's Falcon
Fan-tailed Warbler
Great Tit
Great White Egret
Grey Heron
Grey Wagtail
Hooded Crow
House Martin
House Sparrow
Kentish Plover
Lesser Black-backed Gull
Lesser Whitethroat
Little Egret
Little Grebe
Little Gull
Little Stint
Marsh Harrier
Meadow Pipit
Melodious Warbler
Moustached Warbler
Northern Wheatear
Olivaceous Warbler
Orphean Warbler
Peregrine Falcon
Pied Wagtail
Red-rumped Swallow
Reed Bunting
Rock Nuthatch
Sand Martin
Sandwich Tern
Sardinian Warbler
Savi's Warbler
Scops Owl
Sedge Warbler
Song Thrush
Spanish Sparrow
Spotted Flycatcher
Tree Sparrow
Water Pipit
Water Rail   (heard only)
White Wagtail
Willow Warbler
Yelkouan Shearwater
Yellow-legged Gull

Offline vivian

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Re: Walking around corfu
« Reply #680 on: December 06, 2022, 06:15:26 PM »
You are not the only one interested in Nature, we have been everywhere apart from the salt pans, and hopefully we will get there one day. All take a full day to look at and study properly, but well worth it.

Stay Nude it ante rude

Offline kevin-beverly

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Re: Walking around corfu
« Reply #681 on: December 18, 2022, 10:44:15 AM »

This report is not good news

Xylella fastidiosa

I hear you say another funny name for a plant WELL NO

The bacterium Xylella fastidiosa causes disease in a wide range of plants. It has not been detected in the UK but there have been major outbreaks in mainland Europe. There are serious concerns about the risk of introduction of Xylella via infected host plants imported into the UK

What is Xylella fastidiosa?
The bacterium Xylella fastidiosa is native to the Americas where it causes disease in many important crops including citrus, coffee and grapevine. Until recently Xylella was absent from Europe but in 2013 the bacterium was identified as the cause of death of olive trees in southern Italy. There are now major outbreaks on ornamental plants in southern France (including Corsica), the Balearic Islands (Ibiza, Mallorca and Menorca) and southern Spain and most recently in Portugal, in Lisbon and the Algarve.
Xylella infects a wide range of plants including many popular species grown in gardens, such as cherry, hebe, lavender and rosemary. The bacterium is transmitted between plants via insects which feed on plant sap (such as the meadow froghopper). Spread of the disease over longer distances occurs when Xylella-infected plants are moved in trade.

Symptoms are misleading
Xylella fastidiosa symptoms are known to be quite misleading. Oftentimes, people misidentify the symptoms for classic cases of plant dehydration or simply think that the plant has had too much sun. Nevertheless, leaf scorching and wilting is just the beginning. These mild signs of the infection often lead to more severe symptoms such as dieback and leaf abscission.
That’s when you’ll know that the pathogen has really kicked in and that there is no turning back. The nutrient flow of the plant becomes completely blocked and the plant starts to die slowly from within.
If you suspect that your plant may have Xylella fastidiosa, you will need to make a test. Even mild symptoms can be early signs of something more severe!

Who to contact

If you suspect that Xylella fastidiosa could be present in your garden you should not attempt to control the disease yourself. Collect together all available details including the host plant name, symptoms, origin, and import history and report your suspicions to the relevant plant health authority whose details can be found on the UK Plant Health Information Portal.
if you are an RHS member and have a plant health concern, please contact us via the Gardening Advice Service.

Please do not send samples of suspected Xylella to the RHS

Almost 600 types of plants are at risk
Xylella infections spread fast. Xylella fastidiosa was first identified in Italy, most notably in the southern region of Apulia. Since 2013, it was found in Portugal, Spain, France and even in Germany (although it has since been eradicated). Just recently, Xylella fastidiosa has been reported in Occitanie for the first time, proving that the infection is still spreading at a fast rate.

In fact, Xylella fastidiosa spreads approximately 2 km per month in the infected region. For this reason, new legislative measures were put in place by the European Commission as means of controlling the quick rate of new infections.

Europe Stopping Xylella a 'Top Priority,' Greek Official Says
It is crucial that the control mechanisms are properly manned to act proactively and track pathogenic agents before becoming disastrous for our primary sector production.

Greece remains unaffected [ unknown] by the disease and recently, the deputy minister of Rural Development and Food, Vassilis Kokkalis, assessed the case of pathogenic agents in plants and Xylella fastidiosa particularly.
During the seventh Regional Convention for the Reformation of Production that took place in Corfu, Kokkalis first stressed the importance of strengthening the control mechanisms in order to prevent catastrophic agents from crossing the border into Greece.

“In the era of contemporary trade, plants, propagation material, and agricultural products from around the world arrive daily at our border check points. It is crucial that the control mechanisms are properly manned to act proactively and track pathogenic agents before becoming disastrous for our primary sector production,” he said.

Kokkalis then focused on the Xylella bacteria and set the bar high regarding cutting off the agent by stating “Xylella Fastidiosa is an aggressive pathogen found in neighboring Italy with no remedy yet available, causing thousands of olive trees to be cut down. The top priority for the Ministry now is to prevent the pathogen from entering the country.”

Xylella fastidiosa: new research
Burned, stunted, dried and scorched leaves. From grapevines in California to Mediterranean ornamental plants and olive trees in Italy, over 650 plant species around the globe, including forest species, are vulnerable to Xylella fastidiosa.
Why not use vector insects to monitor the development of the disease? The meadow froghopper (Philaenus spumarius), present in most of Europe, is an effective vector of the bacteria and has a wide variety of hosts, from grasses to trees. In the INRA labs, using new high-throughput molecular biology methods, a single specimen provides researchers with two pieces of information: the DNA of the insect and that of the bacterium it hosts, and its subspecies or strain. Soon, they will also be able to obtain the DNA of the plants the insect eats. These studies are a research milestone! Jean-Pierre Rossi explains with enthusiasm that they will not only be able to identify the DNA of the bacteria, but they will also establish the relation between insects and plants, in order to better understand their diet. How is that useful? It will allow them to reconstruct trophic networks and to design prophylactic measures for the future.
Being able to detect the bacteria within an insect population helps to identify risk areas. For example, in Corsica, 20% of the insects captured in 2016 were contaminated, 30% in the case of rockrose scrub. Through the identification of reservoirs, like rockroses, researchers can find ways to assess management strategies, such as, for example, the destruction of certain plants near susceptible crops. From this standpoint, the trophic network approach is extremely important.


Business New Treatment for Xylella-Infected Trees Is Working, Researchers Say
Researchers have developed and tested a new bactericide that can help olive trees affected by Xylella to return to full production.
The application of an organic treatment, combined with good farming practices, can allow the olive trees to return to full production after suffering from an outbreak of Xylella fastidiosa, according to new research from the Council for Agricultural Research and Agricultural Economics Analysis (CREA).

“We experimented with a compound based on zinc, copper, and citric acid – protected by an international patent – that can be used in organic agriculture and is potentially capable of reaching the bacterium in the olive tree xylem,” Marco Scortichini, the research director of the Olive, Fruit Trees and Citrus Center at CREA, told Olive Oil Times.
According to studies carried out in the United States, zinc and copper ions show the greatest containment capacity of the bacterium, which can be also curbed by the proper management of micronutrients in the plant,”

The fact that the European Commission introduced EU regulations to prevent the introduction and spread of Xylella fastidiosa is evidence that Xylella is very dangerous to Europe. Places where Xylella have been found must undergo a containment zone, in compliance with EU Regulation 2020/1201.

Infected plants must be uprooted or destroyed by means of burning them. Now take a moment to imagine a farmer having to intentionally destroy a magnificent 1,500 year old olive tree.

Offline kevin-beverly

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Re: Walking around corfu
« Reply #682 on: January 06, 2023, 09:53:58 AM »



Nutria  Myocastor coypu
 Known as the coypu  is a large, herbivorous, semiaquatic rodent. Classified for a long time as the only member of the family Myocastoridae, Myocastor is now included within Echimyidae, the family of the spiny rats.

Scientific classification
Kingdom:   Animalia
Phylum:   Chordata
Class:   Mammalia
Order:   Rodentia
Family:   Echimyidae
Subfamily:   Echimyinae
Tribe:   Myocastorini
Genus:   Myocastor
Species:   M. coypus

The genus name Myocastor derives from the two Ancient Greek words μῦς (mûs), meaning "rat, mouse", and κάστωρ (kástōr), meaning "beaver" Literally, therefore, the name Myocastor means "mouse beaver".
Two names are commonly used in English for Myocastor coypus. The name "nutria"(from Spanish word nutria, meaning 'otter')

The nutria (Myocastor coypus), a large, semi-aquatic rodent native to South America, was originally brought to the United States in 1889 for its fur. When the nutria fur market collapsed in the 1940s, thousands of nutria escaped or were released into the wild by ranchers who could no longer afford to feed and house them. While nutria devour weeds and overabundant vegetation, they also destroy native aquatic vegetation, crops, and wetland areas. Recognized in the United States as an invasive wildlife species, nutria have been found in at least 20 States and most recently in California. The nutria’s relatively high reproductive rate, combined with a lack of population controls, helped the species to spread. In many regions they cause severe damage.
 it has since been introduced to North America, Europe, Asia, and Africa, primarily by fur ...
 They spread across almost all of Europe. Since 2016, the nutria population has roughly doubled in areas examined by the German Hunting Association.

In the United Kingdom, nutrias were introduced to East Anglia, for fur, in 1929; many escaped and damaged the drainage works, and a concerted programme by MAFF eradicated them by 1989. However, in 2012, a "giant rat" was killed in County Durham, with authorities suspecting the animal was, in fact, a nutria.

 Coypu can be found in freshwater streams, rivers, ponds, and marshes. Diet: They are primarily herbivores, eating aquatic and terrestrial vegetation. Cattails, reeds, and sedges are favorite foods; they will also eat some grains. Breeding information: Breeding occurs throughout most of the year.

The nutria somewhat resembles a very large rat, or a beaver with a small, long and skinny hairless tail. Adults are typically 4–9 kg (9–20 lb) in weight, and 40–60 cm (16–24 in) in body length, with a 30 to 45 cm (12 to 18 in) tail.

Nutria can live up to six years in captivity, but individuals uncommonly live past three years old. According to one study, 80% of nutrias die within the first year, and less than 15% of a wild population is over three years old  A nutria is considered to have reached old age at four years old. Male nutrias reach sexual maturity as early as four months, and females as early as three months; however, both can have a prolonged adolescence, up to the age of 9 months. Once a female is pregnant, gestation lasts 130 days, and she may give birth to as few as one or as many as 13 offspring. Average nutria reproduction is four offspring. Female nutria will mate within two days after offspring are born. The years of reproduction cycle by litter size. Year one might be large, year two litter size will be smaller and year three the litter size will be another larger size. Females can only produce six litters in her life, rarely seven litters. A female on average will have two litters a year.
 Nutria are mainly crepuscular or nocturnal, with most activity occurring around dusk and sunset with highest activity around midnight. When food is scarce, nutria will forage during the day. When food is plentiful, nutria will rest and groom during the day.

Offline kevin-beverly

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Re: Walking around corfu
« Reply #683 on: January 09, 2023, 12:06:23 PM »


Red fox

Vulpes vulpes

Known as fox European red fox  is the largest of the true foxes and one of the most widely distributed members of the order Carnivora, being present across the entire Northern Hemisphere including most of North America, Europe and Asia, plus parts of North Africa. It is listed as least concern by the IUCN. Its range has increased alongside human expansion, having been introduced to Australia, where it is considered harmful to native mammals and bird populations. Due to its presence in Australia, it is included on the list of the "world's 100 worst invasive species"
The red fox originated from smaller-sized ancestors from Eurasia during the Middle Villafranchian period, and colonised North America shortly after the Wisconsin glaciation. Among the true foxes, the red fox represents a more progressive form in the direction of carnivory. Apart from its large size, the red fox is distinguished from other fox species by its ability to adapt quickly to new environments. Despite its name, the species often produces individuals with other colourings, including leucistic and melanistic individuals. Forty-five subspecies are currently recognised, which are divided into two categories: the large northern foxes and the small, basal southern grey desert foxes of Asia and North Africa

Scientific classification
Kingdom:   Animalia
Phylum:   Chordata
Class:   Mammalia
Order:   Carnivora
Family:   Canidae
Genus:   Vulpes
Species:   V. vulpes
Binomial name
Vulpes vulpes

Males are called tods or dogs, females are called vixens, and young cubs are known as kits. Although the Arctic fox has a small native population in northern Scandinavia, and while the corsac fox's range extends into European Russia, the red fox is the only fox native to Western Europe, and so is simply called "the fox" in colloquial British English.

The red fox is considered a more specialised form of Vulpes than the Afghan, corsac and Bengal foxes in the direction of size and adaptation to carnivory; the skull displays far fewer neotenous traits than in other species, and its facial area is more developed. It is, however, not as adapted for a purely carnivorous diet as the Tibetan fox

The species is Eurasian in origin, and may have evolved from either Vulpes alopecoides or the related Chinese V. chikushanensis, both of which lived during the Middle Villafranchian. The earliest fossil specimens of V. vulpes were uncovered in Baranya, Hungary dating from 3.4 to 1.8 million years ago. The ancestral species was likely smaller than the current one, as the earliest red fox fossils are smaller than modern populations. The earliest fossil remains of the modern species date back to the mid-Pleistocene in association with the refuse of early human settlements. This has led to the theory that the red fox was hunted by primitive humans as both a source of food and pelts

The 3rd edition of Mammal Species of the World listed 45 subspecies as valid. In 2010, a distinct 46th subspecies, the Sacramento Valley red fox (V. v. patwin), which inhabits the grasslands of the Sacramento Valley, was identified through mitochondrial haplotype studies. Castello (2018) recognized 30 subspecies of the Old World red fox and nine subspecies of the North American red fox as valid.

Substantial gene pool mixing between different subspecies is known; British red foxes have crossbred extensively with red foxes imported from Germany, France, Belgium, Sardinia and possibly Siberia and Scandinavia. However, genetic studies suggest very little differences between red foxes sampled across Europe. Lack of genetic diversity is consistent with the red fox being a highly agile species, with one red fox covering 320 km (200 mi) in under a year's time

The red fox is a wide-ranging species. Its range covers nearly 70 million km2 (27 million sq mi) including as far north as the Arctic Circle. It occurs all across Europe, in Africa north of the Sahara Desert, throughout Asia apart from extreme Southeast Asia, and across North America apart from most of the southwestern United States and Mexico. It is absent in Greenland, Iceland, the Arctic islands, the most northern parts of central Siberia, and in extreme deserts. It is not present in New Zealand and is classed as a "prohibited new organism" under the Hazardous Substances and New Organisms Act 1996, which does not allow import.

The fox survives in many different habitats, including urban, alpine and arid areas. Outside urban areas, it appears to be most abundant in lightly wooded areas that are typically found in agricultural landscapes offering a wide variety of shelter and food.

Red foxes have a wide vocal range, and produce different sounds spanning five octaves, which grade into each other. Recent analyses identify 12 different sounds produced by adults and 8 by kits. The majority of sounds can be divided into "contact" and "interaction" calls. The former vary according to the distance between individuals, while the latter vary according to the level of aggression.
Interaction calls: When greeting one another, red foxes emit high pitched whines, particularly submissive animals. A submissive fox approached by a dominant animal will emit a ululating siren-like shriek. During aggressive encounters with conspecifics, they emit a throaty rattling sound, similar to a ratchet, called "gekkering". Gekkering occurs mostly during the courting season from rival males or vixens rejecting advances. Both tamed and domesticated foxes have been observed making sounds similar to laughter, which is believed to be used as a contact call when communicating with human owners and handlers.
Another call that does not fit into the two categories is a long, drawn-out, monosyllabic "waaaaah" sound. As it is commonly heard during the breeding season, it is thought to be emitted by vixens summoning males. When danger is detected, foxes emit a monosyllabic bark. At close quarters, it is a muffled cough, while at long distances it is sharper. Kits make warbling whimpers when nursing, these calls being especially loud when they are dissatisfied.

Red foxes feature prominently in the folklore and mythology of human cultures with which they are sympatric. In Greek mythology, the Teumessian fox, or Cadmean vixen, was a gigantic fox that was destined never to be caught. The fox was one of the children of Echidna.

In Celtic mythology, the red fox is a symbolic animal. In the Cotswolds, witches were thought to take the shape of foxes to steal butter from their neighbours. In later European folklore, the figure of Reynard the Fox symbolises trickery and deceit. He originally appeared (then under the name of "Reinardus") as a secondary character in the 1150 poem "Ysengrimus". He reappeared in 1175 in Pierre Saint Cloud's Le Roman de Renart, and made his debut in England in Geoffrey Chaucer's The Nun's Priest's Tale. Many of Reynard's adventures may stem from actual observations on fox behaviour; he is an enemy of the wolf and has a fondness for blackberries and grapes.

Chinese folk tales tell of fox-spirits called huli jing that may have up to nine tails, or kumiho as they are known in Korea. In Japanese mythology, the kitsune are fox-like spirits possessing magical abilities that increase with their age and wisdom. Foremost among these is the ability to assume human form. While some folktales speak of kitsune employing this ability to trick others, other stories portray them as faithful guardians, friends, lovers, and wives. In Arab folklore, the fox is considered a cowardly, weak, deceitful, and cunning animal, said to feign death by filling its abdomen with air to appear bloated, then lies on its side, awaiting the approach of unwitting prey. The animal's cunning was noted by the authors of the Bible who applied the word "fox" to false prophets (Ezekiel 13:4) and the hypocrisy of Herod Antipas (Luke 13:32)

The cunning Fox is commonly found in Native American mythology, where it is portrayed as an almost constant companion to Coyote. Fox, however, is a deceitful companion that often steals Coyote's food. In the Achomawi creation myth, Fox and Coyote are the co-creators of the world, that leave just before the arrival of humans. The Yurok tribe believed that Fox, in anger, captured the Sun, and tied him to a hill, causing him to burn a great hole in the ground. An Inuit story tells of how Fox, portrayed as a beautiful woman, tricks a hunter into marrying her, only to resume her true form and leave after he offends her. A Menominee story tells of how Fox is an untrustworthy friend to Wolf.

The earliest historical records of fox hunting come from the 4th century BC; Alexander the Great is known to have hunted foxes and a seal dated from 350 BC depicts a Persian horseman in the process of spearing a fox. Xenophon, who viewed hunting as part of a cultured man's education, advocated the killing of foxes as pests, as they distracted hounds from hares. The Romans were hunting foxes by AD 80. During the Dark Ages in Europe, foxes were considered secondary quarries, but gradually grew in importance. Cnut the Great re-classed foxes as Beasts of the Chase, a lower category of quarry than Beasts of Venery. Foxes were gradually hunted less as vermin and more as Beasts of the Chase, to the point that by the late 1200s, Edward I had a royal pack of foxhounds and a specialised fox huntsman. In this period, foxes were increasingly hunted above ground with hounds, rather than underground with terriers. Edward, Second Duke of York assisted the climb of foxes as more prestigious quarries in his The Master of Game. By the Renaissance, fox hunting became a traditional sport of the nobility. After the English Civil War caused a drop in deer populations, fox hunting grew in popularity. By the mid-1600s, Great Britain was divided into fox hunting territories, with the first fox hunting clubs being formed (the first was the Charlton Hunt Club in 1737). The popularity of fox hunting in Great Britain reached a peak during the 1700s.  Although already native to North America, red foxes from England were imported for sporting purposes to Virginia and Maryland in 1730 by prosperous tobacco planters. These American fox hunters considered the red fox more sporting than the grey fox

We got foxes at the bottom of our garden for 4 years with kits evry year we feed them and photograph them

Offline kevin-beverly

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Re: Walking around corfu
« Reply #684 on: January 12, 2023, 11:35:39 AM »



Erinaceus europaeus

Is a spiny mammal  There are seventeen species of hedgehog in five genera found throughout parts of Europe, Asia, and Africa, and in New Zealand by introduction. There are no hedgehogs native to Australia and no living species native to the Americas. However, the extinct genus Amphechinus was once present in North America.
Hedgehogs share distant ancestry with shrews (family Soricidae), with gymnures possibly being the intermediate link, and they have changed little over the last fifteen million years. Like many of the first mammals, they have adapted to a nocturnal way of life. Their spiny protection resembles that of porcupines, which are rodents, and echidnas, a type of monotreme.
The name hedgehog came into use around the year 1450, derived from the Middle English heyghoge, from heyg, hegge ("hedge"), because it frequents hedgerows, and hoge, hogge ("hog"), from its piglike snout. Other names include urchin, hedgepig and furze-pig.

Kingdom:   Animalia
Phylum:   Chordata
Class:   Mammalia
Order:   Eulipotyphla
Family:   Erinaceidae
Subfamily:   Erinaceinae
G. Fischer, 1814
Type genus
Linnaeus, 1758

Hedgehogs are easily recognized by their spines, which are hollow hairs made stiff with keratin. Their spines are not poisonous or barbed and, unlike the quills of a porcupine, do not easily detach from their bodies. However, the immature animal's spines normally fall out as they are replaced with adult spines. This is called "quilling". Spines can also shed when the animal is diseased or under extreme stress. Hedgehogs are usually brown, with pale tips to the spines, though blonde hedgehogs are found on the Channel Island of Alderney.
All species of hedgehogs can roll into a tight ball in self-defense, causing all of the spines to point outwards
 The hedgehog's back contains two large muscles that control the position of the quills. When the creature is rolled into a ball, the quills on the back protect the tucked face, feet, and belly, which are not quilled. Since the effectiveness of this strategy depends on the number of spines, some desert hedgehogs that evolved to carry less weight are more likely to flee or attack, ramming an intruder with the spines; rolling into a spiny ball for those species is a last resort.
Hedgehogs are primarily nocturnal, though some species can also be active during the day. Hedgehogs sleep for a large portion of the day under bushes, grasses, rocks, or most commonly in dens dug in the ground, with varying habits among the species. All wild hedgehogs can hibernate, though not all do, depending on temperature, species, and abundance of food.
Hedgehogs are fairly vocal and communicate through a combination of grunts, snuffles and/or squeals, depending on species
Hedgehogs occasionally perform a ritual called anointing. When the animal encounters a new scent, it will lick and bite the source, then form a scented froth in its mouth and paste it on its spines with its tongue. The purpose of this habit is unknown, but some experts believe anointing camouflages the hedgehog with the new scent of the area and provides a possible poison or source of infection to predators poked by their spines. Anointing is sometimes also called anting because of a similar behavior in birds.
Like opossums, mice, and moles, hedgehogs have some natural immunity against some snake venom through the protein erinacin in the animal's muscular system, although it is available only in small amounts and a viper bite may still be fatal. In addition, hedgehogs are one of four known mammalian groups with mutations that protect against another snake venom, α-neurotoxin. Pigs, honey badgers, mongooses, and hedgehogs all have mutations in the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor that prevent the snake venom α-neurotoxin from binding, though those mutations developed separately and independently.

Hedgehogs have been around since woolly manoths and sablre toothed tigers roamed the earth.

Hedgehogs follow their food and like to live in woodland edges, hedgerows and suburban habitats. This means they are common to gardens, parks and farmland across the UK. Intensely farmed arable land has fewer food sources, however, so they tend to stay away from these areas.
 They inhabit a wide range across a variety of climates and terrains in East Africa, West Africa, and Central Africa. They must have dry shelters on well-drained soil and a good supply of ground-dwelling insects and other invertebrates.
In Africa, hedgehogs live in savannas, forests, and even city streets, where they waddle along, foraging for insects. Hedgehogs live on the ground, never in trees. They like to live alone and may be territorial. Some hedgehogs dig burrows in the soil up to 20 inches (50 centimeters) deep.

The ancient Egyptians liked the hedgehog. They showed this by having hedgehog amulets which meant it was considered a “good” animal. This was probably due to them seeing the hedgehog as a symbol of re-birth, due to the fact they hibernate when food is scarce and re-appear when food is plentiful.
Mongolian folklore has the tale called the clever little hedgehog – This tale involves three friends – a wolf, a fox, and a hedgehog, who compete for the right to eat a plum that fell off from a sack of a passing caravan. In the story, the hedgehog outsmarts his friends (not once, but twice), and wins the plum for himself. This little tale doesn’t mean the Mongolians thought favourably of hedgehogs. They actually believed that if a hedgehog entered your house it was considered bad luck. The reason for this is because hedgehogs walk with their heads down, hiding their faces. This was taken to mean they are not honest or open creatures.
They have had an even worse time in England. During the Middle Ages it was believed that witches could shapeshift into hedgehogs. Therefore you may not be looking at hedgehog but a witch in disguise – out to cause mischief. Due to this way of thinking in 1566 a 3p bounty was put on the head of hedgehogs – dead or alive – by the English parliament! Good job times have changed

Like many other animals hedgehogs were popular in medieval medicine.
A tea made from an infusion of dried hedgehog skin and pepper was thought to be good for Colic.
Hedgehog ashes were the best thing for boils, and powdered hedgehog skin was a sure remedy for hair loss.
Hedgehogs were thought to cure leprosy, which is nonsense. But strangely they do  catch leprosy easily and develop the disease in a very similar way to humans. So more recently they’ve proved very useful in research into the disease.

In medieval times roasted hedgehog with wild duck sauce was a delicacy served to kings and nobility.
Hedgehogs have traditionally been eaten by gypsies. Wrapped in clay, spines and all, and roasted in the embers of a fire.
This practice was common until at least the Second World War, when there are reports of people being fined for eating hedgehogs without the right ration cards.
Much more recently boxer Tyson Fury has sparked fury (!) by claiming to eat hedgehog, marinated in honey and roasted in the oven. This may or may not be illegal, but it’s roundly condemned by the British Hedgehog Preservation Society and animal lovers across the country.

Hedgehogs: It's hard to imagine that such a small, nocturnal and spiny-coated animal such as a hedgehog might be eaten by people. But hedgehogs are a food source in many cultures. They were eaten in ancient Egypt and some recipes of the Late Middle Ages called for hedgehog meat.

Offline kevin-beverly

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Re: Walking around corfu
« Reply #685 on: January 20, 2023, 11:27:47 AM »


As winter months slowly fade away and spring is around the corner Corfu starts to come alive spring bulbs spring flower covering ground of the olive groves. But if you look around you can find something to eat

                            IF UNSURE DO NOT TOUCH OR EAT


In CORFU is a number of  Mushrooms you can see and eat
A mushroom or toadstool is the fleshy, spore-bearing fruiting body of a fungus, typically produced above ground, on soil, or on its food source. Toadstool generally denotes one poisonous to humans.

Morchella esculenta

 (commonly known as common morel, morel, yellow morel, true morel, morel mushroom, and sponge morel) is a species of fungus in the family Morchellaceae of the Ascomycota. It is one of the most readily recognized of all the edible mushrooms and highly sought after. Each fruit body begins as a tightly compressed, grayish sponge with lighter ridges, and expands to form a large yellowish sponge with large pits and ridges raised on a large white stem. The pitted yellow-brown caps measure 2–7 centimetres (1–3 inches) broad by 2–10 cm (1–4 in) tall, and are fused to the stem at its lower margin, forming a continuous hollow. The pits are rounded and irregularly arranged. The hollow stem is typically 2–9 cm (1–3+1⁄2 in) long by 2–5 cm (1–2 in) thick, and white to yellow. The fungus fruits under hardwoods and conifers during a short period in the spring, depending on the weather, and is also associated with old orchards, woods and disturbed grounds.
The cap is pale brownish cream, yellow to tan or pale brown to grayish brown. The edges of the ridges are usually lighter than the pits, and somewhat oval in outline, sometimes bluntly cone-shaped with a rounded top or more elongate. Caps are hollow, attached to the stem at the lower edge, and typically about 2–7 cm (1–3 in) broad by 2–10 cm (1–4 in) tall. The flesh is brittle. The stem is white to pallid or pale yellow, hollow, and straight or with a club-shaped or bulbous base. It is finely granular overall, somewhat ridged, generally about 2–9 cm (1–3+1⁄2 in) long by 2–5 cm (1–2 in) thick. In age it may have brownish stains near the base. It has a passing resemblance to the common stinkhorn (Phallus impudicus), for which it is sometimes mistaken. Yellow morels are often found near wooded areas. Centipedes sometimes make their home inside these morels; infested morels usually have a hole in the top.

Kingdom:   Fungi
Division:   Ascomycota
Class:   Pezizomycetes
Order:   Pezizales
Family:   Morchellaceae
Genus:   Morchella
Species:   M. esculenta
Binomial name
Morchella esculenta

Morchella esculenta, like all morels, are among the most highly prized of all edible mushrooms.  Raw morels have a gastrointestinal irritant, hydrazine, but partboiling or blanching before consumption will remove it. Old fruit bodies that show signs of decay may be poisonous. The mushrooms may be fried in butter or baked after being stuffed with meats and vegetables. The mushrooms may also be dried by threading the caps onto string and hanging them in the sun; this process is said to concentrate the flavor.     

Amanita muscaria

commonly known as the fly agaric or fly amanita, is a basidiomycete of the genus Amanita. It is also a muscimol mushroom. Native throughout the temperate and boreal regions of the Northern Hemisphere, Amanita muscaria has been unintentionally introduced to many countries in the Southern Hemisphere, generally as a symbiont with pine and birch plantations, and is now a true cosmopolitan species. It associates with various deciduous and coniferous trees.

Amanita muscaria is a highly poisonous mushroom; the primary effects usually involve the central nervous system, and in severe poisoning, symptoms may manifest with coma and in rare cases lead to death.

Kingdom:   Fungi
Division:   Basidiomycota
Class:   Agaricomycetes
Order:   Agaricales
Family:   Amanitaceae
Genus:   Amanita
Species:   A. muscaria
Binomial name
Amanita muscaria

A large, conspicuous mushroom, Amanita muscaria is generally common and numerous where it grows, and is often found in groups with basidiocarps in all stages of development. Fly agaric fruiting bodies emerge from the soil looking like white eggs. After emerging from the ground, the cap is covered with numerous small white to yellow pyramid-shaped warts. These are remnants of the universal veil, a membrane that encloses the entire mushroom when it is still very young. Dissecting the mushroom at this stage reveals a characteristic yellowish layer of skin under the veil, which helps identification. As the fungus grows, the red colour appears through the broken veil and the warts become less prominent; they do not change in size, but are reduced relative to the expanding skin area. The cap changes from globose to hemispherical, and finally to plate-like and flat in mature specimens. Fully grown, the bright red cap is usually around 8–20 cm (3–8 in) in diameter, although larger specimens have been found. The red colour may fade after rain and in older mushrooms.

Amanita muscaria is traditionally used for catching flies possibly due to its content of ibotenic acid and muscimol. Recently, an analysis of nine different methods for preparing A. muscaria for catching flies in Slovenia have shown that the release of ibotenic acid and muscimol did not depend on the solvent (milk or water) and that thermal and mechanical processing led to faster extraction of ibotenic acid and muscimol.

Clathrus ruber

 is a species of fungus in the family Phallaceae, and the type species of the genus Clathrus. It is commonly known as the latticed stinkhorn, the basket stinkhorn, or the red cage, alluding to the striking fruit bodies that are shaped somewhat like a round or oval hollow sphere with interlaced or latticed branches. The fungus is saprobic, feeding off decaying woody plant material, and is often found alone or in groups in leaf litter on garden soil, grassy places, or on woodchip garden mulches. Although considered primarily a European species, C. ruber has been introduced to other areas, and now has a wide distribution that includes all continents except Antarctica. The species was illustrated in the scientific literature during the 16th century, but was not officially described until 1729.

Kingdom:   Fungi
Division:   Basidiomycota
Class:   Agaricomycetes
Order:   Phallales
Family:   Phallaceae
Genus:   Clathrus
Species:   C. ruber
Binomial name
Clathrus ruber

Before the volva opens, the fruiting body is egg-shaped to roughly spherical, up to 6 cm (2.4 in) in diameter, with a gelatinous interior up to 3 mm (0.1 in) thick. White to grayish in color, it is initially smooth, but develops a network of polygonal marks on the surface prior to opening as the internal structures expand and stretch the peridium taut. The fruit body, or receptacle, bursts the egg open as it expands (a process that can take as little as a few hours), and leaves the remains of the peridium as a cup or volva surrounding the base. The receptacle ranges in color from red to bright pink to pale orange, and it is often lighter in color approaching the base. The color appears to be dependent upon the temperature and humidity of the environment. The receptacle consists of a spongy network of "arms" interlaced to make meshes of unequal size. At the top of the receptacle, the arms are up to 1.5 cm (0.6 in) thick, but they taper down to smaller widths near the base. A cross-section of the arm reveals it to be spongy, and made up of one wide inner tube and two indistinct rows of tubes towards the outside. The outer surface of the receptacle is ribbed or wrinkled. There are between 80 and 120 mesh holes in the receptacle. The unusual shape of the receptacle has inspired some creative comparisons: David Arora likened it to a whiffleball, while the German Mycological Society—who named C. ruber the 2011 "Mushroom of the Year"—described it as "like an alien from a science fiction horror film"

ruber has not been officially documented, its foul smell would dissuade most people from eating it. In general, stinkhorn mushrooms are considered edible when still in the egg stage, and are even considered delicacies in some parts of Europe and Asia, where they are pickled raw and sold in markets as "devil's eggs".

Hygrocybe coccinea

 sometimes called the scarlet hood, scarlet waxcap or righteous red waxy cap, is a colourful member of the mushroom genus Hygrocybe. These waxcaps are found across the Northern Hemisphere from China and Japan to Europe and North America. The small bright red mushroom is a familiar sight in unimproved grasslands in Europe in late summer and autumn, and woodlands in North America in winter.

Kingdom:   Fungi
Division:   Basidiomycota
Class:   Agaricomycetes
Order:   Agaricales
Family:   Hygrophoraceae
Genus:   Hygrocybe
Species:   H. coccinea
Binomial name
Hygrocybe coccinea

A small waxcap with an initially bell-shaped, and later flattening, cap 2–5 cm (¾–2 in) across, scarlet in colour and slimy in texture. The adnate gills are thick and widely spaced, yellow red in colour. The spore print is white. The ringless stipe is 2–5 cm (¾–2 in) high and 0.3–1 cm (⅛–⅓ in) wide, red with a yellowish base. The flesh is yellowish-red and the smell and taste faint. The oval spores measure 7–9.5 x 4–5 μm.

Hygrocybe coccinea has a wide distribution in unimproved grasslands across Europe from August to October. In Britain, like all Hygrocybes, it has its best seasons in frost-free late autumn months, and in western North America it may be found under redwoods or in mixed woodland in winter. It has been recorded growing under Rhododendron and oak (Quercus) in Sagarmatha National Park in Nepal, and also occurs in India, China and Japan.

The scarlet hood is edible,but of fairly little interest. It should not be confused with the inedible H. punicea.

Morchella esculenta

Amanita muscaria

Clathrus ruber

Hygrocybe coccinea

Offline kevin-beverly

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Re: Walking around corfu
« Reply #686 on: January 30, 2023, 10:04:30 AM »


You may see this molluscs if you take a walk along the sea front south towards Graziella the sea bed is more stoney


Decapodiformes Is a  molluscs with an elongated soft body, large eyes, eight arms, and two tentacles in the superorder Decapodiformes, though many other molluscs within the broader Neocoleoidea are also called squid despite not strictly fitting these criteria. Like all other cephalopods, squid have a distinct head, bilateral symmetry, and a mantle. They are mainly soft-bodied, like octopuses, but have a small internal skeleton in the form of a rod-like gladius or pen, made of chitin.
And more than 300 species of squid are found in every ocean, where they can live alone or in schools.

Do squids have 6 or 8 tentacles?
Like all squid, the colossal squid has eight arms and two tentacles. Each of the arms is a different length, ranging from 0.85 metres to 1.15 metres. The two tentacles are longer than the arms and are about 2.1 metres long.

Squid can change colour for camouflage and signalling. Some species are bioluminescent, using their light for counter-illumination camouflage, while many species can eject a cloud of ink to distract predators.

Squid diverged from other cephalopods during the Jurassic and occupy a similar role to teleost fish as open water predators of similar size and behaviour. They play an important role in the open water food web. The two long tentacles are used to grab prey and the eight arms to hold and control it. The beak then cuts the food into suitable size chunks for swallowing. Squid are rapid swimmers, moving by jet propulsion, and largely locate their prey by sight. They are among the most intelligent of invertebrates, with groups of Humboldt squid having been observed hunting cooperatively. They are preyed on by sharks, other fish, sea birds, seals and cetaceans, particularly sperm whales.

Scientific classification
Kingdom:   Animalia
Phylum:   Mollusca
Class:   Cephalopoda
Subclass:   Coleoidea
(unranked):   Neocoleoidea
Superorder:   Decapodiformes
Groups included
Oegopsida d'Orbigny, 1845

Squid are used for human consumption with commercial fisheries in Japan, the Mediterranean, the southwestern Atlantic, the eastern Pacific and elsewhere. They are used in cuisines around the world, often known as "calamari". Squid have featured in literature since classical times, especially in tales of giant squid and sea monsters.

Crown coleoids (the common ancestor of octopuses and squid) diverged in the late Paleozoic (Mississippian), according to fossils of Syllipsimopodi, an early relative of vampire squids and octopuses. True squid diverged during the Jurassic, but many squid families appeared in or after the Cretaceous. Both the coleoids and the teleost fish were involved in much adaptive radiation at this time, and the two modern groups resemble each other in size, ecology, habitat, morphology and behaviour, however some fish moved into fresh water while the coleoids remained in marine environments.
The ancestral coleoid was probably nautiloid-like with a strait septate shell that became immersed in the mantle and was used for buoyancy control. Four lines diverged from this, Spirulida (with one living member), the cuttlefishes, the squids and the octopuses. Squid have differentiated from the ancestral mollusc such that the body plan has been condensed antero-posteriorly and extended dorso-ventrally. What may have been the foot of the ancestor is modified into a complex set of appendages around the mouth. The sense organs are highly developed and include advanced eyes similar to those of vertebrates.
The ancestral shell has been lost, with only an internal gladius, or pen, remaining. The pen, made of a chitin-like material, is a feather-shaped internal structure that supports the squid's mantle and serves as a site for muscle attachment. The cuttlebone or sepion of the Sepiidae is calcareous and appears to have evolved afresh in the Tertiary.

Squid are carnivores, and, with their strong arms and suckers, can overwhelm relatively large animals efficiently. Prey is identified by sight or by touch, grabbed by the tentacles which can be shot out with great rapidity, brought back to within reach of the arms, and held by the hooks and suckers on their surface. In some species, the squid's saliva contains toxins which act to subdue the prey. These are injected into its bloodstream when the prey is bitten, along with vasodilators and chemicals to stimulate the heart, and quickly circulate to all parts of its body.
 The deep sea squid Taningia danae has been filmed releasing blinding flashes of light from large photophores on its arms to illuminate and disorientate potential prey.

 Is there a difference between calamari and squid?
The most common (and accepted) explanation is that calamari (which means "squid" in Italian) is simply the culinary name of dishes containing squid.


Squid make use of different kinds of camouflage, namely active camouflage for background matching (in shallow water) and counter-illumination. This helps to protect them from their predators and allows them to approach their prey
The skin is covered in controllable chromatophores of different colours, enabling the squid to match its coloration to its surroundings
 The play of colours may in addition distract prey from the squid's approaching tentacles. The skin also contains light reflectors called iridophores and leucophores that, when activated, in milliseconds create changeable skin patterns of polarized light.

Squid distract attacking predators by ejecting a cloud of ink, giving themselves an opportunity to escape. The ink gland and its associated ink sac empties into the rectum close to the anus, allowing the squid to rapidly discharge black ink into the mantle cavity and surrounding water. The ink is a suspension of melanin particles and quickly disperses to form a dark cloud that obscures the escape manoeuvres of the squid. Predatory fish may also be deterred by the alkaloid nature of the discharge which may interfere with their chemoreceptors.

The sexes are separate in squid, there being a single gonad in the posterior part of the body with fertilisation being external, and usually taking place in the mantle cavity of the female. The male has a testis from which sperm pass into a single gonoduct where they are rolled together into a long bundle, or spermatophore. The gonoduct is elongated into a "penis" that extends into the mantle cavity and through which spermatophores are ejected. In shallow water species, the penis is short, and the spermatophore is removed from the mantle cavity by a tentacle of the male, which is specially adapted for the purpose and known as a hectocotylus, and placed inside the mantle cavity of the female during mating

Squid can move about in several different ways. Slow movement is achieved by a gentle undulation of the muscular lateral fins on either side of the trunk which drives the animal forward. A more common means of locomotion providing sustained movement is achieved using jetting, during which contraction of the muscular wall of the mantle cavity provides jet propulsion.

Most anglers use a single squid jig, but you can rig multiples up for deeper vertical fishing. It's also possible to catch squid on conventional jigging spoons, but squid jigs are far more productive. As for the actual jigging motion, a slow lift-and-drop is sometimes how to fish, especially in daylight.

How do you catch squid at night with light?
By positioning super bright lights along the vessel, you will attract squid who are eager to feed. Using a line with barbless lures under the water and a spool, squid will be caught and fall into netting on the side of the boat. Blue and bright green LED lights are ideal for squid fishing.

Offline kevin-beverly

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Re: Walking around corfu
« Reply #687 on: February 01, 2023, 12:11:12 PM »


Those who are going to Arillas spring time will see this plant

Poppy Anemone

Anemone coronaria
 Other names are windflower, Spanish marigold, Is a is a species of flowering plant in the buttercup family Ranunculaceae, native to the Mediterranean region.
Anemone coronaria is a herbaceous perennial tuberous plant growing to 20–40 cm tall,
 spreading to 15–23 cm (0.50 to 0.75 feet), with a basal rosette of a few leaves, the leaves with three leaflets, each leaflet deeply lobed. The flowers which bloom from February to May [ approximately ] are borne singly on a tall stem with a whorl of small leaves just below the flower; the flower is 3–8 cm diameter, with 5–8 red (but may be white or blue) showy petal-like tepals and a black centre. The pollen is dry, has an unsculpted exine, is less than 40 nm in diameter, and is usually deposited within 1.5 m of its source. This central mound consists of tightly packed pistils in the centre, with a crown-like ring of stamens surrounding this, which gives the species its name. The flowers produce 200–300 seeds. The plants form hard black tubers as storage organs.
Aside from its flowers resembling poppies, the red single wild form flowers resemble the flowers of the red single wild form of Ranunculus asiaticus.

Kingdom:   Plantae
Clade:   Tracheophytes
Clade:   Angiosperms
Clade:   Eudicots
Order:   Ranunculales
Family:   Ranunculaceae
Genus:   Anemone
Species:   A. coronaria
Binomial name
Anemone coronaria

 from Greece, Albania, southern Turkey and Syria to the Sinai Peninsula with sporadic extension east to Iran and west along the Mediterranean shores of Italy, southern France and North Africa.
 Greece it inhabits mountainous habitats, either in alpine meadows or in the shade of lower woodlands and forest margins. olive groths
 in damp woodland and along shaded riverbanks, hedgebanks and roadside verges. They also grow in more open ground on heathland, under bracken, on sea- and mountain cliffs and in the grykes of limestone pavement.
Anemone coronaria loves sunshine and should be situated in full sun. Light shade is fine for Anemone nemorosa and Anemone blanda.

Anemone coronaria is widely grown for its decorative flowers, and has a hardiness of USDA zones 7–10, preferring full sun to part shade. Although perennial in its native climate, A. coronaria is usually grown as an annual in cooler climates, from tubers. Planting is usually in the autumn if kept in pots in a greenhouse through the winter or in the ground in spring once the risk of frost has passed.

Modern cultivars have very large flowers, with diameters of 8–10 cm and a wide range of bright and pastel colours, in addition to two toned varieties. The centre is usually black, but may be pale green in white varieties. Stems may be as tall as 40–50 cm, and each plant may produce 13–15 blooms.


Greek ἀνεμώνη (anemōnē) means ‘daughter of the wind’, from ἄνεμος (ánemos ‘wind).
Greek mythology links the anemone, sometimes called the windflower, to the death of Adonis, a handsome youth, who was loved by two women, Persephone, queen of the underworld, and Aphrodite (Venus), goddess of love.
Aphrodite, upon hearing the cries of her lover, ran to his side, only to witness Adonis bleeding to death.
 Red anemones sprang from the earth where the drops of Adonis’s blood fell, (In another version of the story, the anemones were white before the death of Adonis, whose blood turned them to red).
Said to bring luck and protect against evil, legend has it that when the anemone closes its petals, it’s a signal that rain is approaching.

Numerous cultivars have been selected and named, the most popular including the De Caen (single) and St Brigid (semi-double and double) groups of cultivars. The De Caen group are hybrids cultivated in the districts of Caen and Bayeux in France in the 18th century, and include 'Bicolor' (red with white), 'Blue Poppy' (blue), 'Mr Fokker' (purple), 'Sylphide' (deep pink) and 'The Bride' (white). Referred to as poppy anemones because they closely resemble the true poppy (Papaveroideae). St. Brigid cultivars originated in Ireland, and named after that county's saint, they include 'Lord Lieutenant' (purple blue) and 'The Governor' (red). In addition to these large groups, there are two minor groups, Rissoana which is very rustic and early blooming (November) and Grassensis with large double flowers that bloom in the spring.

It is poisonous to humans. Anemone contains an acrid constituent, protoanemonin, which is a strong irritant to the mouth and gastrointestinal mucosa and skin. Toxic doses can lead to nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, low blood pressure, and, if high enough doses are consumed, respiratory distress.

Sea anemones have sting venoms to catch and immobilize small fishes and shrimps for feeding and protection. Most are not harmful for humans or only cause mild dermatitis. A few species possess highly toxic venoms and are hazardous for humans.

Gardens Parks Landscape Ointment planting

It has been reported to have several medicinal properties, including sedative and cardiovascular benefits, amongst others. Wood anemone root extracts have been used to treat a wide range of liver diseases, including chronic hepatitis and liver cirrhosis.
Various medicinal compounds have been found in Anemone plants, especially triterpenoid saponins, some of which have shown anti-cancer activities. Some Anemone compounds and extracts display immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities.

Offline kevin-beverly

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Re: Walking around corfu
« Reply #688 on: February 05, 2023, 12:56:53 PM »


You can see this plant on the banks of the stream running though Arillas

Stinging Nettle

Urtica dioica 

Also known as common nettle, burn nettle,  (although not all plants of this species sting) or nettle leaf, or just a nettle or stinger, is a herbaceous perennial flowering plant in the family Urticaceae. Originally native to Europe, much of temperate Asia and western North Africa,
 it is now found worldwide, including New Zealand and North America. The species is divided into six subspecies, five of which have many hollow stinging hairs called trichomes on the leaves and stems, which act like hypodermic needles, injecting histamine and other chemicals that produce a stinging sensation upon contact ("contact urticaria", a form of contact dermatitis).
The plant has a long history of use as a source for traditional medicine, food, tea, and textile raw material in ancient (such as Saxon) and modern societies.
The species is divided into six subspecies, five of which have many hollow stinging hairs called trichomes on the leaves and stems, which act like hypodermic needles, injecting histamine and other chemicals that produce a stinging sensation upon contact ("contact urticaria", a form of contact dermatitis). There are 46 species of flowering plant of the genus Urtica

Urtica dioica is a dioecious, herbaceous, perennial plant, 3 to 7 feet (0.9 to 2 metres) tall in the summer and dying down to the ground in winter. It has widely spreading rhizomes and stolons, which are bright yellow, as are the roots. The soft, green leaves are 1 to 6 inches (30 to 200 mm) long and are borne oppositely on an erect, wiry, green stem. The leaves have a strongly serrated margin, a cordate base, and an acuminate tip with a terminal leaf tooth longer than adjacent laterals. It bears small, greenish or brownish, numerous flowers in dense axillary inflorescences.
The leaves and stems are very hairy with non-stinging hairs, and in most subspecies, also bear many stinging hairs (trichomes or spicules), whose tips come off when touched, transforming the hair into a needle that can inject several chemicals causing a painful sting or paresthesia, giving the species its common names: stinging nettle, burn-nettle, burn-weed, or burn-hazel.

Kingdom:   Plantae
Clade:   Tracheophytes
Clade:   Angiosperms
Clade:   Eudicots
Clade:   Rosids
Order:   Rosales
Family:   Urticaceae
Genus:   Urtica
Species:   U. dioica
Binomial name
Urtica dioica

 Stinging nettle occurs in moist sites along streams, coulees, and ditches, on mountain slopes, in woodland clearings, and in disturbed areas. Stinging nettle generally grows on deep, rich soils
A very common plant, the stinging nettle can be found growing in gardens, hedgerows, fields, woodlands
In Europe, nettles have a strong association with human habitation and buildings. The presence of nettles may indicate the site of a long-abandoned building, and can also indicate soil fertility. Human and animal waste may be responsible for elevated levels of phosphate and nitrogen in the soil, providing an ideal environment for nettles.

Nettle use has been recorded as far back as the Bronze Age (3000 BCE – 1200 BCE), and it is still used in herbalism today. Between 58 and 45 BCE, there are records of Nettle’s stinging properties assisting Julius Caesar’s troops in helping them stay awake and alert during the night.2 Aside from its use in herbal supplements, Nettle has also been popularly used as a textile. Similar to textiles made from Flax, Nettle can be made into different textures, from silky to coarse. Nettle fabric also has the ability to be dyed or bleached like cotton. It was a common household textile in Scottish households during the 16th and 17th centuries.2 And during the First and Second World Wars, Nettle fiber was used as a substitute for cotton yarns, when this material was unavailable. Because of its strong and sturdy fibers, Nettle would be a great ally if you were ever stranded in a forest, as it can be used to make natural cordage. This natural cordage could then be used to help build a shelter, start a fire, fashion clothing, make tools, and more, making it the ideal plant to have around in a survival situation.
The plant has a long history of use as a source for traditional medicine, food, tea, and textile raw material in ancient (such as Saxon) and modern societies

Urtica is derived from a Latin word meaning 'sting'
Dioica (δίοικος) is derived from Greek, meaning 'of two houses' (having separate staminate and pistillate plants; dioecious).

In the European Union and United Kingdom, nettle extract can be used as an insecticide, fungicide, and acaricide under Basic Substance regulations. As an insecticide nettle extract can be used for the control of codling moth, diamondback moth, and spider mites. As a fungicide, it can be used for the control of Pythium root rot, powdery mildew, early blight, late blight, Septoria blight, Alternaria leaf spot, and grey mould.

Urtica dioica subsp. galeopsifolia can be found It is distributed in west, central and east Europe, Urtica dioica subsp. galeopsifolia, the fen nettle or stingless nettle, is a herbaceous perennial plant found in Europe. It is considered to be either a subspecies of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica), or a species in its own right: Urtica galeopsifolia.
Unlike most other nettles, fen nettle has no stinging hairs or very few, instead being covered in fine, dense, non-stinging hairs. It has long, narrow leaves, these being reminiscent of the unrelated hemp nettles, Galeopsis. Fen nettle grows up to 2 metres (7 ft) tall.

Do dock leaves help nettle stings?
It is often claimed that crushed dock leaves relieve the pain because their alkaline sap neutralises the nettle’s formic acid. But dock leaf sap is acidic too, so this cannot be true. Nevertheless, many find that the dock leaf remedy seems to work, so there may be other reasons for this.
One possibility is that dock leaf juice evaporating from the skin may have a surface cooling effect on the burning sensation. Another is that dock leaves might contain natural antihistamines that reduce the irritation, though none have been identified. The placebo effect, where faith in the efficacy of dock juice might lower the perception of the sting symptoms, cannot be discounted either.

Stinging nettle has fine hairs on the leaves and stems that contain irritating chemicals, which are released when the plant comes in contact with the skin. The hairs, or spines, of the stinging nettle are normally very painful to the touch. When they come into contact with a painful area of the body, however, they can actually decrease the original pain. Scientists think nettle does this by reducing levels of inflammatory chemicals in the body, and by interfering with the way the body transmits pain signals.
 covered with tiny, hollow hairs (trichomes) that contain chemicals including formic acid and histamine. When these hairs are broken, they release their chemicals, which cause the infamous sting. Nettles are most tasty and tender in spring, before they bloom.


Symptoms. Small exposures to nettles can cause local symptoms such as burning, itching, redness, swelling (occasionally small blisters will form)
Stinging nettle is generally considered safe when used as directed. Occasional side effects include mild stomach upset, fluid retention, sweating, diarrhea, and hives or rash (mainly from topical use). It is important to be careful when handling the nettle plant because touching it can cause an allergic rash.

Stinging nettles are great wildlife attractors: caterpillars of the small tortoiseshell and peacock butterflies use them as foodplants; ladybirds feast on the aphids that shelter among them; and seed-eating birds enjoy their autumn spoils. provide food and shelter for more than 40 species of insects, Good for the Garden

Urtica dioica has traditionally been used in the control of cardiovascular disorders especially hypertension. The leaf extract of Urtica dioica has been reported to improve glucose homeostasis in vivo. Nettle root could prevent some of the effects of prostatic hyperplasia.
Stinging nettle has been used for hundreds of years to treat painful muscles and joints, eczema, arthritis, gout, and anemia. Today, many people use it to treat urinary problems during the early stages of an enlarged prostate (called benign prostatic hyperplasia or BPH).
is a nutritious plant popular in Western herbal medicine. Studies suggest that it may reduce inflammation, hay fever symptoms, blood pressure and blood sugar levels — among other benefits.
It is a powerful blood purifier that drives out toxins from the body, making it the perfect addition to your daily routine to stay healthy. The herb has antibacterial, antifungal, astringent, and anti-inflammation properties.
 liver support is stinging nettle. Not only is it a detoxifying herb ideal for spring cleansing, it also acts as a diuretic, detoxifier, and anti-inflammatory and mild hypo-glycemic herb, and exhibits strong anti-allergy effects.
Nettle Root is one of the most powerful herbs known to mankind. In fact, it is the master herb for balancing hormone levels in both men and women. It has shown promising results in alleviating the symptoms of estrogen toxicity, PCOS, and high cholesterol
Nettles contain compounds that act as natural estrogen blockers. Taking supplements can regulate the production of the hormone.

Offline kevin-beverly

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Re: Walking around corfu
« Reply #689 on: March 01, 2023, 09:49:31 AM »


As you walk around Arillas and any place on Corfu not only you see Friends you all so see flora and fauna I have done a lot of flora and a few fauna so here is a few more

Black redstart

Phoenicurus ochruros

 Is a small passerine bird in the genus Phoenicurus. Like its relatives, it was formerly classed as a member of the thrush family (Turdidae), but is now known to be an Old World flycatcher (Muscicapidae). Obsolete common names include Tithys redstart, blackstart (not to be confused with the species currently known as blackstart) and black redtail.
The first formal description of the black redstart was by the German naturalist Samuel Gottlieb Gmelin in 1774
 The species is now placed in the genus Phoenicurus that was introduced in 1817 by the English naturalist Thomas Forster. Both parts of the scientific name are from Ancient Greek and refer to the colour of the tail. The genus name Phoenicurus is from phoinix, "red", and -ouros -"tailed", and the specific ochruros is from okhros, "pale yellow" and -ouros.

Kingdom:   Animalia
Phylum:   Chordata
Class:   Aves
Order:   Passeriformes
Family:   Muscicapidae
Genus:   Phoenicurus
Species:   P. ochruros
Binomial name
Phoenicurus ochruros

The black redstart is 13 – 14.5 cm in length and 12 – 20 g in weight, similar to the common redstart. The adult male is overall dark grey to black on the upperparts and with a black breast; the lower rump and tail are orange-red, with the two central tail feathers dark red-brown. The belly and undertail are either blackish-grey
 or orange-red (eastern subspecies); the wings are blackish-grey with pale fringes on the secondaries forming a whitish panel (western subspecies) or all blackish (eastern subspecies). The female is grey (western subspecies) to grey-brown (eastern subspecies) overall except for the orange-red lower rump and tail, greyer than the common redstart; at any age the grey axillaries and underwing coverts are also distinctive (in the common redstart these are buff to orange-red). One-year-old males are similar to females but blacker; the whitish wing panel of the western subspecies does not develop until the second year.

In Britain, it is most common as a passage and winter visitor, with only 20–50 pairs breeding. On passage it is fairly common on the east and south coasts, and in winter on the coasts of Wales and western and southern England, with a few also at inland sites. Migrant black redstarts arrive in Britain in October or November and either move on or remain to winter, returning eastward in March or April. They also winter on the south and east coasts of Ireland.
It is a widespread breeder in south and central Europe and Asia and north-west Africa, from Great Britain and Ireland (where local) south to Morocco, east to central China. It is resident in the milder parts of its range, but north-eastern birds migrate to winter in southern and western Europe and Asia, and north Africa. It nests in crevices or holes in buildings.
The species originally inhabited stony ground in mountains, particularly cliffs, but since about 1900 has expanded to include similar urban habitats including bombed areas during and after World War II, and large industrial complexes that have the bare areas and cliff-like buildings it favours; in Great Britain, most of the small breeding population nests in such industrial areas. It will catch passing insects in flight, and migrants often hunt in coastal tide-wrack for flies or tiny crustaceans. Its quick ducks of head and body are robin-like, and its tail is often flicked. The male has a rattling song and a tick call.

Black redstarts live in open and semi-open landscapes, inhabiting a wide range of places, from high mountainous regions to villages and towns. If there are no rocky structures available to nest in, they will also accept man made nesting sites such as quarries, buildings and walls.

Black redstarts are usually monogamous. They start breeding in mid-April. The nest is built by the female and is typically placed in a crevice or hole in rock or a wall or on a ledge of a building. The nest consists of a loose cup of grass and stems and is lined with hair, wool and feathers. The eggs are laid daily. The clutch consists of 4 to 6 eggs that are usually white but can also be pale blue. On average they measure 19.4 mm × 14.4 mm (0.76 in × 0.57 in) and weigh 2.16 g (0.076 oz). Beginning after the final egg is laid, the eggs are incubated by the female for 13–17 days. The young are cared for and fed by both parents and fledge after 12–19 days.