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Offline kevin-beverly

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Re: Walking around corfu
« Reply #705 on: August 09, 2023, 09:54:40 AM »


HI
I was reading about the devastation in Greece about this insects



vinegar fly

Drosophila melanogaster

Other common names known around the world are  fruit fly or lesser fruit fly  or wine flies and pomace flies
D. melanogaster is typically used in research owing to its rapid life cycle, relatively simple genetics with only four pairs of chromosomes, and large number of offspring per generation. It was originally an African species, with all non-African lineages having a common origin.
An adult Drosophila melanogaster (common fruit fly) is yellow-brown (tan) in colour, and is only about 3 mm in length and 2 mm wide. It has a rounded head with large, red, compound eyes; three smaller simple eyes and short antennae. The female is slightly larger than the male. There are black stripes on the back surface of its abdomen, which can be used to determine the sex of an individual. Males have a greater amount of black colouring concentrated at the end of the abdomen. Like other flies, common fruit flies have a single pair of wings that grows from the middle segment of its thorax. Larvae are minute, white, and lack legs and a defined head
D. melanogaster is a common pest in homes, restaurants, and other places where food is served

Scientific classificationEdit this classification
Domain:   Eukaryota
Kingdom:   Animalia
Phylum:   Arthropoda
Class:   Insecta
Order:   Diptera
Family:   Drosophilidae
Genus:   Drosophila
Subgenus:   Sophophora
Species group:   melanogaster
Species subgroup:   melanogaster
Species complex:   melanogaster
Species:   D. melanogaster
Binomial name
Drosophila melanogaster

Adults may be dull yellowish, brownish yellow, or brownish black in colour and range from 1/10 to 1/5 inch long. Most species have red eyes. Larvae are very small (ranging from 1/10 to 1/5 inch long), dirty white, and maggot-shaped.

Widespread, their natural homes include those in the tropical regions of the old world (Africa, Asia and Europe), but common Fruit fly has been introduced to nearly all temperate regions of the world. They are also known to seek shelter in colder winter months because of their inability to withstand the colder temperature

HABITAT

 As the name implies, fruit flies are attracted to fruits, as well as vegetables, sitting out on store shelves, in bowls in kitchens, and ripening in the garden. They also breed in drains, garbage disposals, trash containers, empty beer and soda bottles or cans, and soppy mops and buckets.
 grocery stores, restaurants and anywhere else that food may be rotting and fermenting. Most noticeable summer through fall, fruit flies can be a nuisance year round.
 breeds successfully in bananas, Ensete giletti. Other host plants used as breeding site of D. melanogaster include mangos (Mangifera indica), pawpaw (Carica papaya) and apple guava (Psidium gaujava). Several other fruit tree species of the African region have been shown to host D. melanogaster larvae
A fruit fly fact that might surprise you is that these little buggers are quite fond of beer and wine! It’s not that they crave alcohol – you probably won’t see a fruit fly at an AA meeting anytime soon – they’re just drawn to any type of fermenting food source.
DRINK YOUR ALCOCHOL QUIK and get no flies


Physical appearance
Wild type fruit flies are yellow-brown, with brick-red eyes and transverse black rings across the abdomen. The black portions of the abdomen are the inspiration for the species name (melanogaster = "black-bellied"). The brick-red color of the eyes of the wild type fly are due to two pigments: xanthommatin, which is brown and is derived from tryptophan, and drosopterins, which are red and are derived from guanosine triphosphate. They exhibit sexual dimorphism; females are about 2.5 mm (0.10 in) long; males are slightly smaller with darker backs. Males are easily distinguished from females based on colour differences, with a distinct black patch at the abdomen, less noticeable in recently emerged flies, and the sex combs (a row of dark bristles on the tarsus of the first leg). Furthermore, males have a cluster of spiky hairs (claspers) surrounding the reproducing parts used to attach to the female during mating.

Latest News

In Greece, Olive Trees Suffer From Fruit Fly Infection Ahead of Harvest
In the summer, increased insect populations were recorded in several areas across the country.
Some late crop-dusting operations to prevent further pest breeding occurred in several olive oil-producing regions in October, including parts of Crete and the Peloponnese peninsula. However, the fly still causes anxiety for producers.

Last year’s olive harvest in Greece beat expectations, with almost 350,000 tons of oil coming out of the mills. The rich production came after the much-debated drought had minimal effects and there was practically no fruit fly invasion that would degrade both the quality and the quantity of the olive oil.

But this season is a different story with the harvest expected to be slimmer mainly due to the production cycle of the olive trees, and the olive fruit fly has again made its presence felt in many areas of the country.

The lack of the usual heat waves that hit Greece every summer and that would render the fly inactive, combined with the unnaturally high levels of rain, enabled the pest to reproduce and threaten the forthcoming production. A single female fruit fly can deliver about 200 eggs and after a month the new flies emerge with half of them being females able to make 200 eggs more. They exponentially increase their presence and it becomes hard to contain them if they start hatching. Giorgos Korinnis, an agriculturist working in Lakonia, which traditionally makes top-quality olive oil, told Olive Oil Times that the infestation from the fruit fly is more than obvious this season.

“This is an empty season for us,” Korinnis said. “We expect to get only 40 percent of last year’s production which was around 25,000 tons of olive oil for the whole region, and a significant part of it will come from olives infected with the fruit fly. So, due to the damage the fly causes, I wouldn’t be surprised to see olive oils with an acidity level of 0.5 or 0.6 when we normally get 0.2 or 0.3, meaning that a big part of the oil crop will be of lower quality than what we usually get here.” Korinnis also explained that the problem started with the mild weather conditions that prevailed during the summer. “We had no temperatures exceeding 35°C (95°F), so the fly could easily reproduce itself. And many growers did not bother to use any pesticides to get rid of the fly since they weren’t expecting any serious yield, so the fly got the chance to incubate in their trees subsequently contaminating neighboring olive groves with better prospects and affecting this way the olive oil crop of the whole area.”

Konstantinos Papadopoulos of the Papadopoulos Olive Oil Mill near ancient Olympia, told OOT there is an outbreak of the olive fruit fly in the area. Some producers took measures to reduce the damage, but the majority unable to do so mostly due to limited budget. “Some of the producers we work with will get quality olive oil this season, but generally we expect a very low yield of inferior quality,” he noted.

In its native home, the Queensland fruit fly costs growers hundreds of millions of dollars a year in damage and pest control. It has spread from Queensland to other parts of Australia, New Caledonia, French Polynesia, and the Pitcairn Islands. We've found it in our surveillance traps in New Zealand 6 times.

While there are more than 150 species of native fruit fly in Australia, most of these do not attack commercial crops, with the notable exception of Queensland fruit fly which lives in Eastern Australia. There are domestic quarantine restrictions in place to prevent the further spread of this native pest.













Offline kevin-beverly

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Re: Walking around corfu
« Reply #706 on: September 02, 2023, 11:11:48 AM »


HI

My last visit to Arillas i found some plants i have not put on here

common soapwort,

Saponaria officinalis

Also other common names are  bouncing-bet, crow soap, soapweed, and wild sweet William, Now you think a wild sweet william ia a Dianthus well the same family Caryophyllaceae it is not completely diferent flower.
 There are about 20 species of soapworts [ Saponaria ] altogether. The scientific name Saponaria is derived from the Latin sapo (stem sapon-) meaning "soap", which, like its common name, refers to its utility in cleaning. From this same Latin word is derived the name of the toxic substance saponin, contained in the roots at levels up to 20 percent when the plant is flowering (Indian soapnuts contain only 15 percent). It produces a lather when in contact with water. The epithet officinalis indicates its medicinal functions. It is a common host plant for some moth species, including the white-lined sphinx.

Saponaria officinalis' native range extends throughout Europe, and in Asia to western Siberia. It grows in cool places at low or moderate elevations under hedgerows and along the shoulders of roadways. It can be found as a horticultural escape and noxious invasive in much of North America.

Kingdom:   Plantae
Clade:   Tracheophytes
Clade:   Angiosperms
Clade:   Eudicots
Order:   Caryophyllales
Family:   Caryophyllaceae
Genus:   Saponaria
Species:   S. officinalis
Binomial name
Saponaria officinalis

The plant possesses leafy, unbranched stems (often tinged with red) the edge of the leaf blade is entire (has no teeth or lobes). It grows in patches, attaining a height of 70 cm (28 in). The broad, lanceolate, sessile leaves are opposite and between 4 and 12 cm long. Its sweetly scented flowers are radially symmetrical and pink, or sometimes white. Each of the five flat petals have two small scales in the throat of the corolla. They are about 2.5 cm (1 in) wide. They are arranged in dense, terminal clusters on the main stem and its branches. The long tubular calyx has five pointed red teeth.
The individual flowers open in the evening, and stay open for about three days. They produce a stronger scent at night and supplement nectar production during the night. The flowers are protandrous: on the second night of blooming, the pollen is released, and the stigma develops to its final position by the third night. Much of the seed production comes from self-pollination. The flowers are visited by various insects including Noctuidae, Sphingidae, bumblebees, and hoverflies.

In the Northern Hemisphere Saponaria officinalis blooms from May to September, and in the Southern Hemisphere October to March

HABITAT
Anthropogenic (man-made or disturbed habitats), meadows and fields Soapwort is a perennial found in a wide range of marginal habitat such as road verges, hedges, banks and waste ground but is most a home in damp woods and by streams. In these last two habitats, it was once considered to be native but the general consensus now is that it was introduced in ancient times.  native to the Old World (Europe) and Asia with flowers in shades of pink and white. Plant in most soil types including clay. Saponaria prefers to be planted in a full to partial sun location. In hot climates, afternoon shade is best.

HISTORY
Historical information on the use of soapwort can be found in John Gerarde’s The herbal, or Generall historie of plantes written in 1633.  The leaves were brewed and put over cuts on the fingers, hands and legs to speed up the healing process.  It was also used to assist with expelling of kidney stones by provoking the flow of urine.  There was speculation that soapwort would vernal diseases, but there wasn’t sufficient evidence to prove this claim.
In the Stone Age (12,000 years BC) or even earlier it is likely that when people went to wash their hands in the stream they grabbed the leaves of plants growing nearby to help scrub off the dirt. Soapwort grows near streams and the lather from its leaves would help cleaning.
Soapwort grows near streams and the lather from its leaves would help cleaning. More recently soapwort was cultivated as a useful plant in Roman gardens and around Roman baths, whilst soapwort was also used to clean and prepare the Turin Shroud.

The scientific name Saponaria is derived from the Latin sapo (stem sapon-) meaning "soap", which, like its common name, refers to its utility in cleaning.









Saponins (soap-like compounds) are the primary toxins present in Saponaria especially in the seeds. If eaten in sufficient quantity, the saponins may cause acute hepatotoxicity and death. The seeds which are especially toxic may contaminate cereal crops.
 Can be mildly toxic if ingested by horses Saponins cause burning in the mouth, salivation, vomiting, diarrhea, irritation and cough. Fatigue and dyspnea may sometimes occur.
The cause of eastern star toxicity is the saponins that are present in the entire plant. The foaming properties irritate your dog's digestive system and can cause vomiting and diarrhea. These saponins are also able to destroy the red blood cells of the body, which can produce anemia in severe cases.
Soapwort can cause eye irritation when used as shampoo.
This plant should not be grown near a pond as saponins can be toxic to fish.


Despite its toxic potential, Saponaria officinalis finds culinary use as an emulsifier in the commercial preparation of tahini and in brewing to create beer with a good head. In the Middle East, the root is often used as an additive in the process of making halva.  The plant is used to stabilize the oils in the mixture and to create the distinctive texture of halvah.
 To waterproof wool: You can use soapwort for washing fleece, instead of detergents that strip the lanolin from the fleece. Washing with soapwort retains some natural lanolin on the wool, helping to make the wool more water repellent. This washing method maybe useful if you plan to spin wool for an outdoor jumper or bag.
 For textile conservation: Museum conservators use soapwort for cleaning delicate fabrics that can be harmed by modern synthetic soaps.
 Using soapwort roots
 Dig the roots up and then chop them into 1 cm long pieces with secateurs.  Simmer the roots in water for about 20 minutes and let them cool.
 Blend the roots in a liquidiser with water, using a handful of roots at a time. Be careful not to overload the liquidiser, which should be less than half full as the blending creates a great deal of foam. It is possible to crush the roots with a stone or mallet but this is slow and hard work.
 Wait for the foam to subside, which can take several hours. I usually leave it overnight and then pour the liquid through a sieve to removes the bits of root. Remember that you want to save the liquid, so make sure that the sieve is over a container! It may be necessary to strain the remaining liquid through muslin to remove all the debris. If you are short of soapwort you can boil the bits of root again or dry them to re-use later.
 Whisk the liquid with an electric or hand whisk. This will create lots of lovely, white, soapy foam.
Planting in gardens parks soapwort can be used as a groundcover in suitable areas.
 makes an excellent cut-flower filler.



Soapwort oral suggested uses include for bronchitis, cough, and inflammation of mucous membranes in lower and upper respiratory tract. Soapwort topical suggested uses include for poison ivy, acne, psoriasis, eczema, and boils. The only applicable part of the soapwort plant is the root.
In the Middle Ages, monks viewed soapwort as a divine gift to keep them clean. Red soapwort contains chemicals that might thin mucus and make it easier to cough up. People use red soapwort for acne, eczema, bronchitis, and many other conditions, but there is no good scientific evidence to support these uses.
anti-inflammatory properties, which makes it helpful for treating conditions like acne and eczema. The ingredient is also a natural astringent. This means it can help to tone and tighten pores, giving skin a more youthful appearance.
 soapwort root with a glass of warm water and leave it for a few hours to swell. Then cook for about 15 minutes, strain into a bottle and leave to cool. Remember that such a shampoo is rare and will only slightly foam if you heat it up beforehand.
Soapwort can be applied directly to the skin on an ongoing basis to treat chronic skin conditions. “Soapwort juice” is another way to describe soapwort wash, which can help treat skin conditions including: dryness, itchy skin rashes, acne, psoriasis, eczema and boils.




Offline kevin-beverly

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Re: Walking around corfu
« Reply #707 on: September 04, 2023, 10:26:06 AM »


                                                                                           COMMON NAMES FOR PLANTS

Why have common names for plants in olden days many plants and still are used for food or medicinal plants. Sometimes  For example Lesser Celandine has small white bulbs, which look like piles, hence its other common name of pilewort.
I was in Arillas this year and was talking a keen Greek gardner they pointed out a plant and called it by one of it's common names i did not know the commom name they said. I said a common name they said no no no I tried to explane but no.
So out come my trusted ipad and opened PICTURE THIS app a plant Identifier so i took a picture of the plant in a couple minutes all about the plant the latin name for plant and common names and yes both names was on the list.
Common names can often give a clue to what the plant has been used for in the past.
But the common name of plants are often misleading and can vary in different areas of the country and indeed the World.

Carl von Linne a.k.a. Linnaeus came up with a system for naming in 1753 where each species of plant has a name which has two parts. This is called Binomial nomenclature. It's a a formal system of naming species of living things. Each of the two parts of the name used Latin grammatical forms.
The first part of the binomial system is the Genus (always capitalized). The second part is the specific epithet (always lowercase). Together, the genus and specific epithet make up a species or name of a plant. This system is similar to an individual's name.
Etymology. From Ancient Greek φυτόν (phutón, “plant”).

We all dislike the way the Latin names of plants change. Is it just the whim of the botanists? Are they changing them just for the sake of it, or perhaps to make names for themselves? Or are there sound and necessary scientific reasons for it?
Usually, it is advances in botanical knowledge that lead to changes. Detailed studies of the structure of plants may lead to a decision that previously separated species or genera or families should be united, or that they should be split into several distinct entities. In the past such decisions would be based on morphological characteristics (what the plants look like), but increasingly analysis of the DNA (the chemistry of the plants) is used.
Those were odd species being separated out, but whole genera are sometimes divided up. Recently the snowflakes, Leucojum, were given this treatment, some retaining this genus name, and the others making up the new genus Acis. And in the same way, families can be merged or, more often, split. The giant Liliaceae family was given this treatment, and there are now a host of smaller and more manageable families. So we now have Hyacinthaceae, which includes not just hyacinths, but also bluebells (the English type) and grape hyacinths; Trilliaceae, which takes in Paris as well as Trillium; Alliaceae, with onions and their like; while dog's-tooth violets (Erythronium), lilies and fritillaries remain in Liliaceae.

Although there are strict rules about how plants are named, whether or not name changes are accepted is much more dependent on public opinion. So although Russian scientists have accepted that a group of irises should now be known as Juno instead of Iris, most of the rest of the world have not. So the whole purpose of having the rules is negated! International consistency does not exist.
New taxonomic information has accumulated in an accelerated fashion since the advent of DNA sequencing, and that has resulted in a recent flurry of reclassification. Comparing DNA

With the advancement of technology, Botanists,  including those from the RHS, are now able to analyse the DNA of plants they all get together evry fie years
In recent months they have looked at several groups of plants and as a result have reclassified some plants and changed the botanical names.  Now when you are looking at plants here at Hardy’s you will notice that some of the names are different to what you may be used to. For example, ASTER linosyris is now GALATELLA linosyris.

Here is a samll list of the plants which names have changed:

Some in the ASTER group, ASTER linosyris is now GALATELLA linosyris, others previously had been changed to SYMPHYOTRICHUM and EURYBIA.

Some in the EUPATORIUM group are now EUTROCHIUM

The GAURA group is now OENOTHERA

Some in the GYPOSOPHILA group are now ACANTHOPHYLLUM

Some in the LAVATERA group are now MALVA

Some in the PARAHEBE group are now VERONICA

The PEROVSKIA group is now SALVIA

Some in the PHLOMIS group are now PHLOMOIDES

The ROSMARINUS group is now SALVIA

Some in the SEDUM group are now HYLOTELEPHIUM

Some VERBENA are now GLANDULARIA

In addition, some plants, while they have not had their species changed, they have had their botanical name updated. For example, RANUNCULUS x arendsii ‘Moonlight’ is now RANUNCULUS x prietoi ‘Moonlight’.

So i must try and keep up with the new Family and Genus and Species names





Offline kevin-beverly

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Re: Walking around corfu
« Reply #708 on: September 17, 2023, 01:10:04 PM »


HI

We all have seen this insects around Arillas people running aroud like headless chickens, waving arms around doing some sort of semaphore


Hornets

Vespa

The Asian giant hornet    Vespa mandarinia

The Asian hornet             Vespa velutina

The European hornet       Vespa crabro

The Oriental hornet         Vespa orientalis

Here is the ones you most probably come across

Hornets (insects in the genus Vespa) are the largest of the eusocial wasps, and are similar in appearance to their close relatives yellowjackets. Some species can reach up to 5.5 cm (2.2 in) in length. They are distinguished from other vespine wasps by the relatively large top margin of the head. Worldwide, 22 species of Vespa are recognized.
 Most species only occur in the tropics of Asia, though the European hornet (V. crabro), is widely distributed throughout Europe, Russia, North America, and north-eastern Asia. Wasps native to North America in the genus Dolichovespula are commonly referred to as hornets (e.g., baldfaced hornets), but are actually yellowjackets.

Asian hornet

Also known as the yellow-legged hornet or Asian predatory wasp, is a species of hornet indigenous to Southeast Asia. It is of concern as an invasive species in some other countries. Vespa velutina is significantly smaller than the European hornet. Typically, queens are 30 mm (1.2 in) in length, and males about 24 mm (0.95 in). Workers measure about 20 mm (0.80 in) in length. The species has distinctive yellow tarsi (legs). The thorax is a velvety brown or black with a brown abdomen. Each abdominal segment has a narrow posterior yellow border, except for the fourth segment, which is orange. The head is black and the face yellow. Regional forms vary sufficiently in color to cause difficulties in classification, and several subspecies have been variously identified and ultimately rejected; while a history of recognizing subspecies within many of the Vespa species exists, including V. velutina, the most recent taxonomic revision of the genus treats all subspecific names in the genus Vespa as synonyms, effectively relegating them to no more than informal names for regional color forms. The color form causing concern about its invasiveness in Europe has been referred to as V. v. nigrithorax, though this name no longer has any taxonomic standing.
Like other hornets, V. velutina builds nests that may house colonies of several thousand individuals. Females in the colony are armed with formidable stingers with which they defend their nests and kill their prey. The nest is of paper, roughly in the shape of a huge egg, usually at least half a meter long. Unlike the nest of the European hornet (V. crabro), its exit is usually lateral rather than at the bottom. The nesting season is long, and a colony commonly begins by building a nest in a low shrub, then abandoning it after some months and rapidly building a new one high in a tree, possibly as an antiparasitic measure. The next generation of young queens disperses in the late autumn to hibernate over winter.

European hornet

 Is the largest eusocial wasp native to Europe. It is also the only true hornet (genus Vespa) found in North America, having been introduced to the United States and Canada from Europe as early as 1840. Vespines, such as V. crabro, are known for making intricate paper-like nests out of surrounding plant materials and other fibers. Unlike most other vespines, reproductive suppression involves worker policing instead of queen pheromone control, as was previously thought.
This species stings in response to being stepped on or grabbed, but generally avoids conflict. It is also defensive of its nest and can be aggressive around food sources. Care should be taken when they are found in these circumstances, as they may sting without warning. European hornets are largely carnivorous and hunt large insects such as beetles, wasps, large moths, dragonflies, and mantises.They also feed on fallen fruit and other sources of sugary food. Mutual predation between medium-sized hornets and the Asilidae (robber flies) is often reported.
The eyes of V. crabro are deeply indented and shaped like a "C". Its wings are reddish-orange, while the petiolate abdomen is striped with brown and yellow. It has hair on the thorax and abdomen, although the European hornet is not as hairy as most bees.
Due to this coloration and abdomen pattern, V. crabro is often mistaken for the Asian giant hornet. Typical mass size for the European Hornet is 477.5±59.9 mg  Workers average around 25 mm (1.0 in) in length, while the larger queens can reach up to 35 mm (1.4 in). This is significantly larger than most common wasps (such as Vespula vulgaris), but smaller than the Asian giant hornet. Females are typically larger than males in both size and mass. However, male abdomens have seven segments, whereas female abdomens have six. There is a cerebral ganglion, two thoracic ganglia, and five abdominal ganglia. Only females possess a stinger, it is a modified egg laying device (ovipositor): males cannot sting. The antennae of males are slightly longer, with 13 segments compared to twelve segments in females. V. crabro prefers to build nests in dark places, usually hollow tree trunks. After the site has been chosen, the queen lays eggs in the combs inside the nest. The workers dispose of any eggs that are not laid by their queen; this behavior is called worker policing.

Oriental hornet

 Is a social insect species of the family Vespidae.Oriental hornets can be found in Central Asia, southwestern Asia from Armenia and Turkey to India and Nepal, throughout the Middle East, in Northeast Africa, in some Afrotropical countries such as Ethiopia and Somalia, and in parts of Southern Europe: Croatia, Bosnia, Montenegro, North Macedonia, Albania, Greece, Spain, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Malta, Sicily and the southern half of peninsular Italy. Oriental hornets have been introduced by humans into additional locations, including Chile, Madagascar, Mexico, and Xinjiang, China, as well as the occasional introduction via fruit into Belgium and the United Kingdom. The Oriental hornet is the only member of the genus Vespa that can be found in desert climates such as those in North Africa, the Middle East, and parts of southwestern Asia.
Oriental hornets have also been found in a few isolated locations such as Mexico and Chile due to human introduction.
The adult hornet has two pairs of wings and a body measuring between 25 and 35 mm (0.98 and 1.38 in) long. Drones and workers are smaller in size than the queen. V. orientalis is a reddish-brown color and has distinctive thick yellow bands on the abdomen and yellow patches on the head between the eyes. It has very strong jaws and will bite if provoked. Females (workers and the queen) have an ovipositor, which is a specialized organ shaped like a tube that is used for laying eggs. The ovipositor extends from the end of the abdomen and is also used as a stinger. Males (drones) can be distinguished from workers by the number of segments on their antenna. Drones have 13 segments, while workers only have 12. The Oriental hornet looks similar to the European hornet (V. crabro) and should not be confused with the Asian giant hornet (V. mandarinia) of East Asia.

Domain:   Eukaryota
Kingdom:   Animalia
Phylum:   Arthropoda
Class:   Insecta
Order:   Hymenoptera
Family:   Vespidae
Subfamily:   Vespinae
Genus:   Vespa

Type species

The fearsome-looking hornet may not be a well-loved insect, but it is actually much less aggressive than the common wasp. It is also an important pollinator and a predator of species that feed on plants and crops, so can be a gardener's friend
Homeowners can appreciate that they protect gardens and landscapes from pests like caterpillars, spiders and aphids and pollinate blooming plants, but a sudden sting can erase that goodwill quickly.
But the giant hornets have an additional trait: they specialise in eating honeybee broods. When they invade a honeybee colony, the hornets can enter a 'slaughter phase', where they will serially kill bee after bee. Within a few hours, a small group of hornets can decimate an entire honeybee colony. They are specialised honeybee predators and beekeepers are concerned. 'The hornets raid honeybee hives by sitting outside them and capturing workers as they go in and out. They chop them up and feed the thorax to their young.

Typically, hornets like to build their nests in high areas. These include, but are not limited to:

Attics
Treetops
Under roofs
Decking
Sheds
Garages
Hollow tree trunks
There are some hornets that build their nests in the ground and cause a real risk to humans. Hornet’s nests built in the ground in areas highly populated by humans run the risk of getting stepped on by accident, causing the hornets to attack the unsuspecting human.









 




Hornet venom contains a histamine that can trigger severe allergic reactions in people. Most of the time, you can treat hornet stings on your own, but you should seek immediate medical treatment if your symptoms are severe.
Hornets may sting multiple times, or you may encounter a swarm of hornets. Multiple hornet stings can cause more symptoms and may be life threatening. For example, in Sri Lanka, the hornet Vespa affinis can swarm humans , and stings can result in heart attacks, organ failure, or other health conditions.
The main reason a hornet’s sting is so deadly compared to other stinging insects is due to the sheer size of a hornet. A hornet sting could bring a 200 pound man to his knees easily.  Generally, hornet venom isn’t considered that toxic to humans, but due to their size, the amount of venom they release per sting can be very harmful becaus e they release more venom per sting than any other stinging insect.  If you happen to be allergic to the hornet’s venom (and most wouldn’t know if they were), then you could be in real trouble if stung.



It is also an important pollinator and a predator of species that feed on plants and crops, so can be a gardener's friend.





Offline kevin-beverly

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Re: Walking around corfu
« Reply #709 on: October 03, 2023, 10:51:26 AM »


HI

I have done rosemallows HIBISCUS but this one is a tropical hibiscus,

CHINA ROSE

Hibiscus rosa-sinensis

Other common names are  Chinese hibiscus, Hawaiian hibiscus, rose mallow and shoeblack plant,  Is a species of tropical hibiscus, a flowering plant in the Hibisceae tribe of the family Malvaceae. It is widely cultivated as an ornamental plant in the tropics and subtropics, but its native range is Vanuatu. Hibiscus rosa-sinensis is a bushy, evergreen shrub or small tree growing 2.5–5 m (8–16 ft) tall and 1.5–3 m (5–10 ft) wide. The plant has a branched taproot. Its stem is aerial, erect, green, cylindrical, and branched.

Its leaves are simple and petiolate, with alternate phyllotaxy. The leaf shape is ovate, the tip is acute, and the margin is serrated. Venation is unicostate reticulate, meaning the leaves' veins are branched or divergent. Their surfaces are glossy. Free lateral stipules are present.

There are two main types – hardy deciduous hibiscus (Hibiscus syriacus, used in outdoor planting schemes) and tender evergreen hibiscus (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, which is grown as a house plant) as seen in ARILLAS. Hardy hibiscus is also called rose of Sharon.

Kingdom:   Plantae
Clade:   Tracheophytes
Clade:   Angiosperms
Clade:   Eudicots
Clade:   Rosids
Order:   Malvales
Family:   Malvaceae
Subfamily:   Malvoideae
Tribe:   Hibisceae
Genus:   Hibiscus
Species:   H. rosa-sinensis
Binomial name
Hibiscus rosa-sinensis
L.
Synonyms
Hibiscus arnottii Griff. ex Mast.
Hibiscus boryanus DC.
Hibiscus cooperi auct.
Hibiscus festalis Salisb.
Hibiscus liliiflorus Griff. ex Mast.
Hibiscus rosiflorus Stokes
Hibiscus storckii Seem.
Hibiscus tricolor Dehnh.

Its flowers bloom in summer and autumn. They are solitary (axillary) and symmetrical. They are typically red, with five petals 10 cm (4 in) in diameter, with prominent orange-tipped red anthers
 Cultivars and hybrids have flowers in a variety of colors as well as red: white, pink, orange, peach, yellow, blue, and purple. Some plants have double flowers.
 location with full sun to partial shade and in rich moist soil with good drainage. The roots should be kept moist.  Chinese hibiscus appreciates high humidity and protection from wind and frost
Each hibiscus flower has both male and female parts. The ovary and other female parts of the flower lie in the main structure of the hibiscus: the pistil, which is long and tubular. The five "hairy" spots at the top of the pistil make up the stigma, which is where pollen is collected. In the middle of the pistil is the style, which is the tube down which pollen travels to the ovary. The ovary lies at the bottom of the blossom, and each hibiscus has only one superior ovary. The male part of the flower, called the stamen, consists of stem-like filaments and anthers. Each filament ends with the pollen-producing anther.

Hibiscus rosa-sinensis was first described in 1753 by Carl Linnaeus in Species Plantarum. The specific epithet rosa-sinensis literally means "rose of China", although the plant is not closely related to true roses, nor is it from China. The genus Hibiscus is in the tribe Hibisceae and the subfamily Malvoideae of the family Malvaceae

HABITAT
Country Or Region Of Origin: Asia ? UNKNOWN
Hibiscus is easily grown
over a wide range of
conditions. Their diverse
habitats range from
wetlands to savannahs and
woodlands.
Garden Sunny Edge; Dappled Shade; Hedge;

Hibiscus rosa-sinensis is one of many plant species with a genetic characteristic known as polyploidy, a condition in which the species has more than two complete sets of chromosomes. A result of polyploidy is that the phenotype of a plant's offspring may be quite different from the parent plant, or indeed any ancestor, essentially allowing possibly random expression of any (or all) of the characteristics of previous generations. Because of this characteristic, H. rosa-sinensis has become popular with hobbyists who cross and recross varieties, creating new varieties. Competitions are held to exhibit and judge the many resulting new seedlings and often strikingly unique flowers

Hibiscus rosa-sinensis is widely grown as an ornamental plant throughout the tropics and subtropics. As it does not tolerate temperatures below 10 °C (50 °F), in temperate regions it is best grown under glass. Plants grown in containers may be placed outside during the summer months and moved into shelter during the winter months
 The cultivar 'Cooperi' has gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit

HISTORY
 Hibiscus also has cultural significance and symbolism especially in Haiti, Tahiti, and Hawaii. The origin of Hibiscus is still uncertain but believed to come from India, China, or Americas as stated by some studies.
 is described as having a number of medical uses in Indian Ayurveda.
In Hindu mythology, the hibiscus is closely associated with the goddess Kali, who embodies nothing less than the force of life itself. Red hibiscus flowers, presented as offerings to Kali, represent her divine consciousness. The allure of hibiscus goes way beyond ritual
The name hibiscus gets its origins from the ancient Greek word “hibiskos,” which means marsh mallow or white mallow. Greek physician Dioscorides, who served in the Roman army, is credited with giving the plant this name.












Hibiscus is not poisonous to humans, and it is typically safe for dogs; however, the plant does pose a risk to cats.

Landscape Location: Container Houseplants Naturalized Area  Garden Edible Garden Pollinator Garden Hedge Screen/Privacy Butterflies Bees commonly consumed in teas made from its flowers, leaves, and roots. Hibiscus rosa-sinensis is used as a food and food flavoring too. The young, tender leaves of the plant are cooked and eaten in China like spinach. In other places the most tender leaves are put raw into salads.

THIS ONE FOR NEIL
The Hibiscus flower is a rich source of flavonoids & amino acids. While the former helps increase blood circulation in the scalp and stimulate dormant follicles, the latter helps with keratin production, giving your hair a natural shine and texture. You can use hibiscus for hair fall and hair thinning problems as well


This plant has various important medicinal uses for treating wounds, inflamation, fever and coughs, diabetes, infections caused by bacteria and fungi, hair loss, and gastric ulcers in several tropical countries.
Immunity. The immune system is a complex system of cells, tissues and organs that protects the body against infection and disease.
Healthy, Glowing Skin.
Reduces Tiredness & Fatigue.
Source of Plant Protein.
Boosts Energy Levels.
Cognitive Health.
Healthy Bones.
Healthy Teeth
Chinese hibiscus is a sweet, astringent, cooling herb that checks bleeding, soothes irritated tissues and relaxes spasms. The flowers are aphrodisiac, demulcent, emmenagogue, emollient and refrigerant. They are used internally in the treatment of excessive and painful menstruation, cystitis, venereal diseases, feverish illnesses, bronchial catarrh, coughs and to promote hair growth. An infusion of the flowers is given as a cooling drink to ill people. The leaves are anodyne, aperient, emollient and laxative. A decoction is used as a lotion in the treatment of fevers. The leaves and flowers are beaten into a paste and poulticed onto cancerous swellings and mumps. The flowers are used in the treatment of carbuncles, mumps, fever and sores. The root is a good source of mucilage and is used as a substitute for marsh mallow (Althaea officinalis) in the treatment of coughs and colds. A paste made from the root is used in the treament of venereal diseases







Offline kevin-beverly

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Re: Walking around corfu
« Reply #710 on: October 16, 2023, 10:26:33 AM »


Hi

I have not seen one of these. I watch David Attenborough Life in Colour so i had a look if you can get this in Corfu Arillas and around Now i will give a good look

Crab Spider

Misumena vatia belongs to the family Thomisidae,  Thomisidae are a family of spiders, including about 170 genera and over 2,100 species. The common name crab spider is often linked to species in this family, but is also applied loosely to many other families of spiders. Many members of this family are also known as flower spiders or flower crab spiders
Members of this family of spiders do not spin webs, and are ambush predators. The two front legs are usually longer and more robust than the rest of the legs. The back two legs are smaller, and are usually covered in a series of strong spines. They have dull colorations such as brown, grey, or very bright green, pink, white or yellow. They gain their name from the shape of their body, and they usually move sideways or backwards. These spiders are quite easy to identify and can very rarely be confused with Sparassidae family, though the crab spiders are usually smaller.
Spiders in this family are called "crab spiders" due to their resemblance to crabs, the way such spiders hold their two front pairs of legs, and their ability to scuttle sideways or backwards.
The Thomisidae are the family most generally referred to as "crab spiders", though some members of the Sparassidae are called "giant crab spiders", the Selenopidae are called "wall crab spiders", and various members of the Sicariidae are sometimes called "six-eyed crab spiders". Some distantly related orb-weaver spider species such as Gasteracantha cancriformis also are sometimes called "crab spiders".

Crab spiders can be found just about anywhere in the world. Crab or flower spiders are found everywhere in the world save the coldest or driest places. They perch under leaf litter, beneath tree bark, and on plants and flowers.

Scientific classification
Domain:   Eukaryota
Kingdom:   Animalia
Phylum:   Arthropoda
Subphylum:   Chelicerata
Class:   Arachnida
Order:   Araneae
Infraorder:   Araneomorphae
Family:   Thomisidae
Genus:   Misumena
Species:   M. vatia
Binomial name
Misumena vatia

HABITAT
Habitat and distribution. Misumena vatia.  can be found all over the world. The species prefers a temperate climate and generally inhabits forest biomes.
Crab spiders live in a variety of habitats, including gardens, fields, and wooded areas throughout the Northeastern U.S. Most species are sit-and-wait hunters that stay completely still until their prey comes within reach. Crab spiders usually walk backward or sideways.
 In Britain it has a strongly southern distribution
Misumena vatia is terrestrial and can be found on several plants and flowers such as milkweed and goldenrod in North America, as well as trillium, white fleabane (Erigeron strigosus), ox-eye daisy (Chrysanthemum leucanthemum), red clover (Trifolium pratense) and buttercups (Ranunculus acris).

These spiders may be yellow or white. This ultimately depends on the flower on which they are hunting (active camouflage). Younger females especially, which may hunt on a variety of flowers such as daisies and sunflowers, have a strong tendency to adapt to the color of the surrounding flower. However, the color-changing process is not instant and can require up to 25 days to complete. Older females need large amounts of relatively large prey to produce the best possible clutch of eggs. In North America, they are most commonly found in goldenrods, bright yellow flowers which attract large numbers of insects, particularly in autumn. It is often very hard even for a searching human to spot this spider on a yellow flower. These spiders are sometimes called 'banana spiders' because of their striking yellow color.
Females have light complexions, either white or yellow with darker sides. They may have some markings on the abdomen that can be brown or red. These markings are genetically determined and not affected by a background color change. Males are darker than females, with red or brown outer shells. They have a characteristic white spot in the middle that continues through the area around the eyes. Males specifically have two sets of red and white bands both dorsally and laterally. Similar species of the crab spiders appear in a variety of colors such as those of the genus Diaea, which can be lime green, or some species of Xysticus and Coriarchne which are brown

These spiders change color based on visual cues. The color-change is most obvious on females of this species. The ability of males and juveniles to change color has not been documented. Two other known spiders with this color change ability include Thomisus onustus and Thomisus spectabilis. Depending on the color of flower they see around them, they can secrete a liquid yellow pigment into the body's outer cell layer. The baseline color of the spider is white. In its white state, the yellow pigment is sequestered beneath the outer cell layer so that inner glands which are filled with white guanine are visible. They are able to match with greater accuracy to white flowers, such as Chaerophyllum temulum (the rough chervil) in particular, compared to yellow flowers based on the spectral reflectance functions. While the spider is residing on a white plant, it tends to excrete the yellow pigment instead of storing it in its glands. In order to change back to yellow, the spider must first produce enough of the yellow pigment. For this reason it takes these spiders much longer to turn from white to yellow than it does for them to go from yellow to white. The color change from white to yellow can take between 10 and 25 days while the opposite color change takes only about six days. The yellow pigments are kynurenine and 3-hydroxykynurenine. Color changes are induced by visual cues and spiders with impaired vision lose this ability.
Notably, spiders of this species sometimes choose to hunt on flowers that, to the human eye, they do not appear to match in color. For instance, they can be found hunting on the pink petals of the pasture rose (Rosa carolina). The spider appears white, or changes to white, causing it to stand out to human observers. Arthropods, on the other hand, serve as both predators and prey to Misumena vatia, and have photoreceptors that allow them to see ultraviolet, blue, and green light but oftentimes lack red receptors altogether. As a result, Misumena vatia is camouflaged, appearing dark on a dark background.

Females usually die very soon after their eggs have hatched, during their second winter. Young undergo one molt within the egg sac, and emerge after hatching as second instars. They can sustain themselves for a few days with the nutrients from their yolk sacs.

These spiders have two rows of four eyes each for a total of eight eyes.

Autotomy, the loss of one leg, can happen in a variety of critical situations, including fleeing from predators, fighting, and getting rid of parasites. The disadvantage is obvious, but most spiders can grow back lost limbs if the loss occurs during a juvenile stage and before the final molting.

The loss of an anterior leg is common among males. Over their lifetimes, approximately 30 percent of males will lose one of their anterior legs. One direct disadvantage of losing a leg is a decrease in mobility. Spiders with all eight legs have considerably higher body weights, showing that losing legs negatively impacts foraging and significantly decreases the speed with which they can move along lines. Since females are widely dispersed, the impairment of mobility adversely affects the male’s reproductive success.

So next time you are walking around or in a places of flowers take a good look you never know you might be lucky



Misumena vatia is harmless to humans, as its fangs are not powerful enough to penetrate human skin and its venom is too weak to harm larger animals.










Offline kevin-beverly

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Re: Walking around corfu
« Reply #711 on: November 12, 2023, 10:14:37 AM »


HI

Well talking about spring now you thinking thats ages away. Well yes it is but not a spring bulb it needs to be in the ground now or soon as
You can be lucky at your shop getting half price so its time to look
You dont have to speend £s just a few pounds can brighten your patio, or small patch in the garden ETC
I have put together a list of bulbs and the characteristics

Alliums

Alliums flower in May and June, bridging the gap between spring and summer perfectly. Loved by bees, the beautiful pompom flowers on tall stems come mostly in shades of purple, but also pink and white. They look fantastic threaded through a border – grow as many as you can for the most stunning effect. Grow alliums in moist but well-drained soil in full sun.

H x S: 1m x 10cm
When to plant: September and October/November
Tip: Grow alliums among low-growing herbaceous plants, which hide their unsightly strappy foliage after flowering


Bluebells

The English bluebell, Hyacinthoides non-scripta, makes a spectacular display in UK woodlands, carpeting the ground in April. Bluebells will also grow happily in a shady garden, or under deciduous trees. The English bluebell is not to be confused with the larger, paler Spanish bluebell, Hyacinthoides hispanica, which was introduced as a garden plant in the 17th century. This has posed problems for our native bluebell, which could eventually die out due to hybridisation. Do not plant Spanish bluebells if you live near a native bluebell colony and always buy bulbs from a reputable supplier.
H x S: 15cm x 10cm
When to plant: September to November
Tip: You can also buy bluebells 'in the green' in spring. Bluebells take a while to establish.


Crocus

Carpets of small purple, yellow and white crocus flowers are a highlight in the garden from late winter onwards. They also provide a much-needed source of nectar and pollen for pollinating insects just emerging from hibernation. Crocuses are easy to grow and are well-suited to growing in pots or at the front of borders and naturalising in grass. They like a sunny spot.

H x S: 10cm x 5cm
When to plant: September and October
Tip: When planting, throw the bulbs in the air and plant where they land, for a natural look


Daffodils

Daffodils (Narcissus) brighten our gardens throughout spring. There are many different varieties, some flowering as early as February and others as late as early May. Daffodils range in height from about 10cm up to 45cm and come in a variety of colours and forms. In addition to the usual yellow, flowers can be white, cream or lemon, with trumpets of contrasting shades. Some are scented. Daffodils grow brilliantly in pots and look great in borders. Some are suitable for naturalising in grass, too.

H x S: 10cm to 45cm x 10cm
When to plant: September and October
Tip: Do not tie back the foliage once flowering has finished – allow it to die back naturally


Grape hyacinth (Muscari)

Grape hyacinths, Muscari, have flowers that look like a cross between a bunch of grapes and miniature hyacinths, in April and May. They are known for their flowers in brilliant shades of blue, but white, pink and purple varieties are also available. They look good at the front of a border, naturalised in grass or under deciduous shrubs. They spread easily so if you don't want them to do this, grow them in pots or window boxes.

H x S: 15cm x 15cm
When to plant: September and October
Tip: Deadhead plants in the ground to stop them self-seeding and spreading


Hyacinth

Hyacinths are highly fragrant spring bulbs that flower in March and April. They come in a range of colours, from the traditional blue, pale pink and white to more contemporary dark purple, magenta and even pale yellow. Plant hyacinths at the front of garden borders or in pots for a fragrant splash of colour nearer the house.

H x S: 25cm x 10cm
When to plant: September to November
Tip: Buy 'forced' hyacinth bulbs for an early display indoors


Reticulate iris (Iris reticulata)

Iris reticulata are fabulous bulbs for small pots, window boxes and raised beds, plus other sunny and free-draining spots in the garden, such as the front of a border. They bring much-needed colour in February and March, and their mostly blue and purple flowers have beautiful, intricate markings. They are extremely popular with early bees.

H x S: 10cm x 5cm
When to plant: September to November
Tip: If you forgot to plant Iris reticulata in autumn, you can buy them in flower in small pots at garden centres in late winter and early spring.


Snowdrops

Snowdrops (Galanthus nivalis) are the first bulbs to flower, usually in February, and are often hailed as the first sign of spring. They flower whatever the weather – even in snow. Grow in moist, well-drained soil in partial shade – they look particularly good under shrubs and trees. Snowdrops can also be grown in pots. Read our full guide to growing snowdrops.

Height x Spread: 10cm x 10cm
When to plant: October or November
Tip: You can also plant snowdrops ‘in the green’, just as after they’ve flowered, in February or March


Tulips

The beautiful flowers of these showy bulbs come in almost every colour from pale pastels to deep, rich shades, and in a variety of flower shapes, too, from simple goblets to showy frilled blooms. They are perfect for adding spring colour to borders in April and May and grow very well in pots. Tulips are technically perennial, but years of breeding to get the most beautiful blooms means that many varieties only flower reliably for one year. Many gardeners plant new bulbs each autumn to ensure a good display. If you’re growing tulips in pots,  you need to plant fresh bulbs each year.

H x S: 60cm x 20cm
When to plant: November
Tip: Species tulips are smaller and come back reliably year after year


Winter aconites

The cheerful yellow flowers of winter aconite, Eranthis hyemalis, are a welcome sight in early February. They look best grown en masse in a natural setting, under deciduous trees or shrubs, and combine beautifully with snowdrops. They can be tricky to establish but once settled they will spread naturally. Ideally, grow in a spot that is sunny in winter but shaded in summer, as aconites will not thrive in dry soil.
They are very invasive

H x S: 10cm x 10cm
When to plant: October and November
Tip: Winter aconites can also be bought 'in the green', in February or March




Just a few to get started  If you need help with any horticulture stuff just get in touch i can only try

Offline kevin-beverly

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Re: Walking around corfu
« Reply #712 on: November 18, 2023, 10:46:37 AM »


HI
I was reading a Greek gardening book and it mentioned about this plant on Corfu

caper bush

Capparis spinosa

Also known as Flinders rose,  Caper Berry,  is a perennial plant that bears rounded, fleshy leaves and large white to pinkish-white flowers. Capparis spinosa ranges around the Mediterranean Basin, Arabian Peninsula, and portions of Western and Central Asia.
In southern Europe it is found in southern Portugal, southern and eastern Spain including the Balearic Islands, Mediterranean France including Corsica, Italy including Sicily and Sardinia, Croatia's Dalmatian islands, Albania, Greece and the Greek Islands, western and southern Turkey, on Cyprus, and on the Crimean Peninsula in Ukraine. In Spain it ranges from sea level up to 1300 meters elevation.
In northern Africa it is found throughout the north and the Atlas Mountains of Morocco, where it occurs from sea level up to 2000 meters elevation. It is also found in northern Algeria (Kabylie, coastal Algeria, Bouzaréa, and Oran) and the Hoggar Mountains of the Algerian Sahara, in Tunisia north of the Sahara, and Cyrenaica in Libya.
In western Asia it is found along the eastern Mediterranean in Lebanon, Israel, Palestine, Syria, and western Jordan, and in the southern Sinai Peninsula of Egypt. It is also found south of the Caucasus in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, and northeastern Turkey. On the Arabian Peninsula it occurs in Oman, Yemen including Socotra, and Asir province of Saudi Arabia. In central Asia it inhabits the mountains of central Afghanistan, the lower Karakoram range in northern Pakistan and Ladakh, and Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, and eastern Uzbekistan.

The plant is best known for the edible flower buds (capers), used as a seasoning or garnish, and the fruit (caper berries), both of which are usually consumed salted or pickled. Other species of Capparis are also picked along with C. spinosa for their buds or fruits. Other parts of Capparis plants are used in the manufacture of medicines and cosmetics. Capparis spinosa is native to almost all the circum-Mediterranean countries, and is included in the flora of most of them, but whether it is indigenous to this region is uncertain. The family Capparaceae could have originated in the tropics and later spread to the Mediterranean basin.

Kingdom:   Plantae
Clade:   Tracheophytes
Clade:   Angiosperms
Clade:   Eudicots
Clade:   Rosids
Order:   Brassicales
Family:   Capparaceae
Genus:   Capparis
Species:   C. spinosa
Binomial name
Capparis spinosa

HABITAT
The caper (Capparis spinosa) is one of the most characteristic plants of the Mediterranean islands. In its natural habitat this plant lives in the walls of ancient city walls as well as on rocky, coastal cliff faces.
The best growing conditions for Capers is in the full sun, planted on a mound of well drained material over good rich soil. Caper plants needs a hot and dry climate. It is beneficial to add good compost and lime to the soil before planting. The plants require some watering until established.

The shrubby plant is many-branched, with alternate leaves, thick and shiny, round to ovate. The flowers are complete, sweetly fragrant, and showy, with four sepals and four white to pinkish-white petals, many long violet-coloured stamens, and a single stigma usually rising well above the stamens
. The main production areas are in harsh environments found in Iraq, Morocco, the southeastern Iberian Peninsula, Turkey, the Greek island of Santorini, and the Italian island of Pantelleria, and the Aeolian Islands, especially Salina. Capers from Pantelleria and Aelian island are recognized as European PGI products. This species has developed special mechanisms to survive in Mediterranean conditions, and introduction in semiarid lands may help to prevent the disruption of the equilibrium of those fragile ecosystems.

HARVEST
You should be able to pick capers from May to September, from the third year onwards after sowing from seed. Harvest the flower buds when they are still tight. This usually means picking them early in the morning before they start to open in the heat of the day.

HISTORY
Capers have been harvested and preserved in Greece and all around the Mediterranean for millennia. Of course, we usually get the caper buds and the fruit of caper berry separately in the UK. In Greece they are harvested together from the same branch of the same plant and often eaten together.
 (Capparis spinosa) has grown wild around the Mediterranean for millennia. It is one of the few plants that flourishes between the Judean desert and the Dead Sea, the lowest point on Earth, because it thrives in poor soil and arid conditions. Its long roots can penetrate rocks, which enables it to grow even in difficult sites—even at the Western Wall in Jerusalem.
Wild caper berries were mentioned in the Sumerian Epic of Gilgamesh, an epic poem written in Mesopotamia more than 4,000 years ago. The ancients believed capers had aphrodisiac qualities. In Ecclesiastes 12:5, they are named symbolically in a verse about the physical desire of the aging.
Capers were known to the Greeks and the Romans. The book of ancient Roman cookery De Re Coquinaria (On the Subject of Cooking) recommends adding capers to his recipe for sala cattabia—a salad made with pepper, mint, dried pennyroyal, cheese, pine nuts, honey, liquamen (a fermented fish sauce widely used by the Romans), egg yolk, and bread soaked in water with vinegar. The Romans also used capers to stimulate the appetite and to treat a variety of illnesses from toothache, paralysis, and fevers to erectile disfunction. In fact, the caper bush still thrives on the Acropolis hill in Athens and along the Aurelian walls that surround the city of Rome.
The Mishna describes capers, called kahfars or tzalaf, as a kind of “budding fruit” and tithable crop, that was widely grown in Judea. At that time, caper berries were often employed to produce caper wine, which was one of the ingredients of the ketoret—an incense made with a blend of herbs and balms that was used as an offering on Yom Kippur. The Talmud states that this offering would bring blessings of wealth to whomever offered it on the altar. Each priest was given the chance only once in his lifetime, so that as many priests as possible could have this opportunity.
Capers are the edible flower buds of the caper bush, while caper berries are the immature fruit; mature fruit are less desirable, as they contain hard seeds. Both the buds and the fruit are generally dried in the sun, then salted or pickled in vinegar, brine, or wine. They can be used as a condiment or garnish, and their piquant taste gives a delicious burst of flavor to sauces, dressings, eggs, fish, and pasta. Caper berries can also be used instead of olives in bloody marys or dry martinis. Ashkenazi Jews like to add capers to potato salads and Liptauer cheese, or to give a tang to New York-style bagels with lox and cream cheese.
Capers are widely used in Mediterranean cooking, especially that of Cyprus, Italy, France, and Greece. They often feature in southern Italian cooking, where they are combined with olives in such classic dishes as the Sicilian eggplant caponata and the Neapolitan spaghetti alla puttanesca—spaghetti in a spicy tomato sauce with olives, capers, garlic, chile, and oregano. (The finest capers are said to be cultivated on the Italian island of Pantelleria, where they have PGI—protected geographical indication—status.) In Greece, capers are often sprinkled over Greek salad, and kaparosalata sifnou, an onion and caper salad, is one of the specialities of the island of Sifnos. Capers also feature in a variety of French sauces like sauce tartare, remoulade, and ravigote, as well as the well-known Provencal tapenade, which also includes olives and sometimes anchovies.


Caper fruits (caperberries) grow to about 2-3/4 inches long when ripe, but they are usually picked immature at about 1 inch and pickled. At this young stage the seeds are soft and edible. The berries are served as appetizers and in salads, particularly in Spain and Greece.







SAFE    Fresh capers are not toxic to your pets

Plant in Garden use in cooking pasta, salads,chicken,fish,cheese,drinks perfect both for cocktail mixing and cocktail garnishing



According to test-tube studies, capers are an especially good source of antioxidants like quercetin and rutin ( 1 ). Both of these compounds have been well-studied for their ability to alleviate inflammation, enhance wound healing, and promote healthy blood sugar levels ( 7 , 8 ).

Cancer prevention
When combined with poultry or red meat, capers may help limit the creation of harmful byproducts that have been linked to cell damage and an increased risk of cancer. This health benefit applies even with small amounts of capers. As such, capers are especially beneficial for people who eat diets high in red meat or other sources of saturated fat.

Cardiac Arrhythmia
Pickled capers pack high doses of the bioflavonoid quercetin, which plays an important role in the functioning of the KCNQ gene family's potassium ion channels. If dysfunctional, these channels increase the likelihood of someone developing several dangerous health conditions, including arrhythmia of the heart. The quercetin found in capers may trick KCNQ channels into opening, thereby promoting healthier heart activity.

Alzheimer's Disease
People who regularly consume flavonols such as quercetin are less likely to develop Alzheimer's. This reduced risk may result from natural antioxidants and the anti-inflammatory properties of these flavanols, which limit cellular damage.

Nutrition
Vitamin A
Vitamin E
Manganese
Niacin
Calcium






Offline kevin-beverly

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Re: Walking around corfu
« Reply #713 on: November 25, 2023, 10:13:02 AM »

HI



rough chervil

Chaerophyllum temulum Is a species of flowering plant in the family Apiaceae  with 35 species . Somewhat hispid, biennial herb. Stems to 100 centimetres (39 in), solid, swollen below nodes, purple-spotted or wholly purple. Leaves bi- to tri-pinnate, dark green, appressed-hairy on both surfaces, longipetiolate: lobes mostly 10–20 millimetres (0.39–0.79 in), ovate in outline, deeply toothed, the teeth contracted abruptly at the apex. Umbels compound, bearing usually 6-12 (occasionally as few as 4 or as many as 15) hairy rays usually 1.5–5 centimetres (0.59–1.97 in) long; peduncle longer than rays, hairy; terminal umbel with mostly hermaphrodite flowers, overtopped by lateral umbels, which have mostly male flowers. Bracts absent, or rarely 1–2; bracteoles 5–8, shorter than pedicels, ciliate, eventually deflexed. Flowers white; sepals absent; outer petals not radiating; styles with enlarged base, forming stylopodium. Fruit usually 5–6 millimetres (0.20–0.24 in), slightly laterally compressed, oblong but narrowing toward apex, constricted at commissure; mericarps having broad, rounded ridges; carpophore present; vittae solitary, conspicuous; pedicels without a ring of hairs at apex; styles roughly as long as stylopodium, recurved; stigma capitate. Cotyledons tapered gradually at base without distinct petiole. Flowering time (in U.K.) : late May to early July.
Native to Albania, Algeria, Austria, Baltic States, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Central European Rus, Corse, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, East European Russia, France, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Krym, Morocco, Netherlands, North Caucasus, North European Russi, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Sicilia, South European Russi, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Ukraine, Yugoslavia. And Introduced into:British Columbia, Finland, Kirgizstan, New Jersey, New Zealand North, Norway, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Québec, Washington

Kingdom:   Plantae
Clade:   Tracheophytes
Clade:   Angiosperms
Clade:   Eudicots
Clade:   Asterids
Order:   Apiales
Family:   Apiaceae
Genus:   Chaerophyllum
Species:   C. temulum
Binomial name
Chaerophyllum temulum
L.
Synonyms
Bellia temulenta Bubani nom. illeg.
Chaerophyllum geniculatum Gilib. nom. inval.
Chaerophyllum temulentum L.

HABITAT
Chaerophyllum temulum is a ruderal or pioneer species which will grow in a variety of situations, from damp places, such as waterside thickets, to open woodland, woodland edges, waste places, by walls and fences, in both lowland and hilly country.
 light shade but can grow in full sun but not in deep shade. It also grows on a wide range of soil types
 grassland along hedges and woodland edges, road verges, railway banks and wasteland.

HISTORY
The generic name Chaerophyllum is a compound of the Greek elements chairo 'to please' and phyllon a leaf, giving the meaning 'having pleasant foliage'. The specific name temulum or temulentum means 'drunken' - from the similarity of the symptoms elicited by poisoning by the plant to those of alcoholic intoxication.
NB In older books it may still be listed under the old botanical name of Chaerophyllum temulentum.

Unlike other plants called chervil, rough chervil is poisonous. It can be distinguished by stems that are hairy and purple-spotted (or sometimes completely purple) and swollen below the stem branches (nodes).
This widespread and common member of the apiacea or carrot family looks very much like edible wild chervil but it is poisonous. The scientific name temulum means drunken alluding to some of the symptoms shown by animals after consumption.











YES VERY POISONOUS 
 Externally, the sap of the plant can cause inflammation of the skin and persistent rashes. If consumed, the plant causes gastro-intestinal inflammation, drowsiness, vertigo and cardiac weakness. Human poisonings have seldom been observed, because the plant lacks aromatic essential oils that could lead to its being confused with edible umbellifers used to flavour food. It is, however, used occasionally in folk medicine. Animal poisonings by the plant are commoner than those of humans, pigs and cattle thus intoxicated exhibiting a staggering gait, unsteady stance, apathy and severe, exhausting colic, ending sometimes in death. Such symptoms recall those caused by the toxic grass Lolium temulentum, the common darnel. Chaerophyllum bulbosum and Chaerophyllum hirsutum have also been reported to be toxic. Chaerophyllum temulum has been reported to contain the polyyne falcarinol and the compound falcarinone. The scientific name temulum means drunken alluding to some of the symptoms shown by animals after consumption.



NONE WHAT I CAN FIND

Chaerophyllum temulum has been used in folk medicine, in small doses, to treat arthritis, dropsy, and chronic skin complaints, and as a spring tonic.  It has been known for its medicinal uses in Chinese traditional medicine for treating hemorrhoids and dysentery, and recently has been considered a potential anti–cancer drug source from a terpene extracted from its fruits.





Offline vivian

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Re: Walking around corfu
« Reply #714 on: November 25, 2023, 06:03:59 PM »
HI Kev, I fount that very interesting and the bit about the capers was good, looks like it could grow well in our back garden. XX

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Offline kevin-beverly

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Re: Walking around corfu
« Reply #715 on: November 26, 2023, 09:36:36 AM »


HI Vivian

Can I grow capers UK?
The caper plant is a half-hardy, deciduous shrub. It needs a sunny position with at least 6 hours of sun per day in summer. It needs a minimum temperature of 10°C (50°F) and is best grown in a greenhouse or well-lit conservatory. Although it can tolerate lower temperatures if the compost is kept on the dry side.
Plant on a south facing next to your property it is warm


kev

Offline kevin-beverly

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Re: Walking around corfu
« Reply #716 on: December 19, 2023, 10:30:04 AM »


HI

RADISH

Raphanus sativus  (Raphanus raphanistrum subsp. sativus) 

 Is an edible root vegetable of the mustard family, Brassicaceae, that was domesticated in Asia prior to Roman times.  Are grown and consumed throughout the world, being mostly raw as a crunchy salad vegetable with a pungent, slightly spicy flavor, varying in intensity depending on its growing environment. There are numerous varieties varying in size, flavor, color, and length of time they take to mature. Radishes owe their sharp flavor to the various chemical compounds produced by the plants, including glucosinolate, myrosinase, and isothiocyanate. They are sometimes grown as companion plants and suffer from few pests and diseases. They germinate quickly and grow rapidly, common smaller varieties being ready for consumption within a month, while larger daikon varieties take several months. Being easy to grow and quick to harvest, radishes are often planted by novice gardeners. Another use of radish is as a cover or catch crop in winter, or as a forage crop. Some radishes are grown for their seeds; others, such as daikon, may be grown for oil production. Others are used for sprouting.

Radishes are annual or biennial brassicaceous crops grown for their swollen tap roots which can be globular, tapering, or cylindrical. The root skin colour ranges from white through pink, red, purple, yellow, and green to black, but the flesh is usually white. The roots obtain their color from anthocyanins. Red varieties use the anthocyanin pelargonidin as a pigment, and purple cultivars obtain their color from cyanidin. Smaller types have a few leaves about 13 cm (5 in) long with round roots up to 2.5 cm (1 in) in diameter or more slender, long roots up to 7 cm (3 in) long. Both of these are normally eaten raw in salads. A longer root form, including oriental radishes, daikon or mooli, and winter radishes, grows up to 60 cm (24 in) long with foliage about 60 cm (24 in) high with a spread of 45 cm (18 in). The flesh of radishes harvested timely is crisp and sweet, but becomes bitter and tough if the vegetable is left in the ground too long. Leaves are arranged in a rosette. They have a lyrate shape, meaning they are divided pinnately with an enlarged terminal lobe and smaller lateral lobes. The white flowers are borne on a racemose inflorescence. The fruits are small pods which can be eaten when young.

 Radish are now broadly distributed around the world, but almost no archeological records are available to help determine their early history and domestication. However, scientists have tentatively located the origin of Raphanus sativus in Southeast Asia, as this is the only region where truly wild forms have been discovered. India, central China, and Central Asia appear to have been secondary centers where differing forms were developed. Radishes enter the historical record in third century BC. Greek and Roman agriculturalists of the first century AD gave details of small, large, round, long, mild, and sharp varieties. The radish seems to have been one of the first European crops introduced to the Americas. A German botanist reported radishes of 45 kilograms (100 pounds) and roughly 90 centimetres (3 feet) in length in 1544, although the only variety of that size today is the Japanese Sakurajima radish. The large, mild, and white East Asian form was developed in China, though it is mostly associated in the West with the Japanese daikon, owing to Japanese agricultural development and larger exports

HABITAT
 While this plant is often grown in vegetable gardens, it is uncommon to find the non-native Garden Radish in the wild. According to official records, it has naturalized in only a few counties
 Include dumps, edges of gardens, areas along roadsides and railroads, and waste areas. The preference is disturbed habitats, where this plant usually doesn't persist.
Any well-drained, slightly acidic to neutral soil with pH 6 to 7 will do for radishes, as long as the soil is not compacted. Although daikon can penetrate heavy soils to depths more than one foot, the roots will not be as smooth, uniform and tender as those grown in lighter, prepared soils

From well-known daikon and Cherry Belle to heirloom varieties like watermelon radishes. While the word radish may bring a specific variety to mind, they are a very common root vegetable. There are over 100 varieties that come in several colors, shapes, and sizes – all with their own unique flavor and nutrients.


Kingdom:   Plantae
Clade:   Tracheophytes
Clade:   Angiosperms
Clade:   Eudicots
Clade:   Rosids
Order:   Brassicales
Family:   Brassicaceae
Genus:   Raphanus
Species:   R. raphanistrum
Subspecies:   R. r. subsp. sativus
Trinomial name
Raphanus raphanistrum subsp. sativus
(L.) Domin
Synonyms
Raphanus sativus L.




 

   







NONE

In veg gardens green houses
 Radishes are safe for your dog to eat in moderation and contain a good source of fibre, potassium, and vitamin C. These nutrients keep your dog's muscles healthy and support your dog's digestion and immune system. The rough texture of this veggie can also help remove plaque from your dog's teeth.
Radishes are most often served raw, halved and sprinkled with salt, shaved into salads, layered over butter-smeared baguettes, or shredded into slaws. They also can be marinated with olive oil and lemon and mint for a refreshing salad, and they can be pickled with a classic vinegar-sugar-salt mix.
Cooking, Drinks

Many studies have shown that radish leaves have antioxidant properties. These antioxidants seem to help protect you against liver, colon, breast, cervical, prostate and lung cancers. Another study showed that the leaf extract stopped the growth of a certain type of breast cancer cell. But much more research is needed.

Helps in fighting with fungal growth

Radish juice contains enzymes like diastase, amylase, myrosinase and esterase that can destroy any fungus that is overgrown in the body. It is also very effective in removing harmful toxins, parasites and viruses from the body.

Strengthen liver function

Radish juice contains compounds that help the liver detoxify and heal damage. Compounds like these help the kidneys get rid of toxins. It also helps resolve digestive and urinary disorders.

Helps improve cardiovascular

Radish is rich in antioxidants and minerals such as calcium and potassium. The nutrient helps in lowering high blood pressure and also reduces the heart disease risk. Radishes are also a great source of natural nitrates that improve blood flow.

Helps Fight Fever

A good natural remedy to lower your fever is to drink radish juice. It lowers body temperature and relieves fever or inflammation.

High on Fiber

If you will drink it on daily basis, it will provide your system with a good amount of fiber and fiber, thereby improving your digestion. t is also suitable for regulating bile production, protecting the liver and gallbladder, and processing water retention.

Protects the Heart

Radish is a good source of anthocyanins, which can keep our heart working normally and reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. In addition, they are also rich in vitamin C, folic acid and flavonoids.

Controls Blood Pressure

Radishes can also provide potassium to your body. Potassium can help lower blood pressure and control blood flow, especially if you are known to have high blood pressure. According to Ayurveda, radish has a cooling effect on the blood.

Strengthen blood vessels

Radishes play an important role in the creation of collagen, thereby strengthening our blood vessels and reducing the risk of atherosclerosis.

Improves Immunity

Due to the high vitamin C content in radishes, it can protect you from colds and coughs, while improving your basal immune system. But you need to consume it regularly. It also controls the growth of harmful free radicals, inflammation and premature aging.

The root is used as food and also as medicine. Radish is used for stomach and intestinal disorders, bile duct problems, loss of appetite, pain and swelling (inflammation) of the mouth and throat, tendency towards infections, inflammation or excessive mucus of the respiratory tract, bronchitis, fever, colds, and cough

Radish for urinary tract infection
Radishes have diuretic properties and hence helps to clean out the kidneys by stimulating the production of urine. Radish juice is effective in curing inflammation and reduces the burning feeling that a person may experience during urination. By stimulating urine production, radishes help to prevent any infections in the urinary system or in the kidneys and also help to prevent other kidney disorders.

Benefits of radish for healthly heart
The anthocyanins present in radish have anti-inflammatory properties that help to prevent cardiovascular diseases. They also help to check other effects like peripheral artery disease, heart failure and even kidney diseases. Anthocyanins present in radish help to circulate metabolites and prevent cardiovascular ailments by reducing oxidative stress and inflammation



AND MANY MOORE




Offline kevin-beverly

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Re: Walking around corfu
« Reply #717 on: January 03, 2024, 11:40:36 AM »


HI

Cornivorous Plants

Straight away you think of Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula) Well there aer over 800 species throughout the wold

Carnivorous plants are plants that derive some or most of their nutrients from trapping and consuming animals or protozoans, typically insects and other arthropods, and occasionally small mammals and birds. They still generate all of their energy from photosynthesis. They have adapted to grow in places where the soil is thin or poor in nutrients, especially nitrogen, such as acidic bogs. They can be found on all continents except Antarctica, as well as many Pacific islands. In 1875, Charles Darwin published Insectivorous Plants, the first treatise to recognize the significance of carnivory in plants, describing years of painstaking research. True carnivory is believed to have evolved independently at least 12 times in five different orders of flowering plants, and is represented by more than a dozen genera. This classification includes at least 583 species that attract, trap, and kill prey, absorbing the resulting available nutrients. Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula), pitcher plant (Cephalotus follicularis), and bladderwort (Utricularia gibba) can be seen as exemplars of key traits genetically associated with carnivory: trap leaf development, prey digestion, and nutrient absorption.
The number of known species has increased by approximately 3 species per year since the year 2000. Additionally, over 300 protocarnivorous plant species in several genera show some but not all of these characteristics. A 2020 assessment has found that roughly one quarter are threatened with extinction from human actions.

Plants are considered carnivorous if they have these five traits:

capture prey in traps
kill the captured prey
digest the captured prey
absorb nutrients from the killed and digested prey
use those nutrients to grow and develop

Five basic trapping mechanisms are found in carnivorous plants

Pitfall traps (pitcher plants) trap prey in a rolled leaf that contains a pool of digestive enzymes or bacteria.
Flypaper traps use a sticky mucilage.
Snap traps utilise rapid leaf movements.
Bladder traps suck in prey with a bladder that generates an internal vacuum.
Lobster-pot traps, also known as eel traps, use inward-pointing hairs to force prey to move towards a digestive organ.

HABITAT
 Carnivorous plants are varied but usually involve wet, low-nutrient sites including bogs, swamps, waterbodies, watercourses, forests and sandy or rocky sites.

In Europe, the native carnivorous plants are represented by Aldrovanda, Drosera, Drosophyllum, Pinguicula, and Utricularia. The only endemic European carnivorous plants are in the genus Pinguicula.
 there are many species native to the UK including sundews, butterworts and bladderworts.
To the extent to which molecular phylogenies have been calibrated against the ages of fossils of other plants, these origins of carnivory appear to have occurred between roughly 8 and 72 million years ago

Balkanian Butterwort
Balkanian butterwort is native to the Balkans. The plant can be found in Serbia, North Macedonia, Greece, Bulgaria, and Albania. Like other carnivorous plants, the plant grows in nutrient-poor, acidic, and wet environments, and most cases thrive in high altitude bogs, rocky mountainous places, and near streams.

During spring, the cycle starts with the opening of winter buds and produces the first carnivorous leaf. Following the leaves, flowers are produced between May and August. It also produces seeds between July and September, surviving winter in the hibernaculum.

It is a species of the butterworts that uses its sticky leaves to attract, catch and dissolve the insects to obtain nutrients. That is because they grow in poor acidic soils that lack nutrients.

Interesting Facts:
Besides reproducing by seeds, the plants also reproduce by gemmae.
It produces white flowers

HISTORY

Nepenthe /nɪˈpɛnθi/ (Ancient Greek: νηπενθές, nēpenthés) is a possibly fictional medicine for sorrow – a "drug of forgetfulness" mentioned in ancient Greek literature and Greek mythology, depicted as originating in Egypt.

The carnivorous plant genus Nepenthes is named after the drug nepenthe.












NONE All are considered non-toxic to pets.

Carnivorous plants aren't just for kids. Pitcher plants and Venus Fly Trap are some of Nature's most fascinating plants.
A terrarium is a great way to grow and display carnivorous plants. They maintain humidity and the carnivorous plants help you eliminate insects and pests naturally. Carnivorous plants are native to swamps and live in constantly humid conditions.



Carnivorous Plants are used in a variety of folk preparations and medicines. From Asia, the fluid from young unopened Monkey Pitchers (Nepenthes) is used for drinking, cleaning wounds or treating incontinence, distress and pain.





Offline kevin-beverly

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Re: Walking around corfu
« Reply #718 on: February 19, 2024, 11:30:06 AM »

HI

I thought i shall do this plant as it is out now in the UK and on CORFU

Snowdrops

Galanthus  Is a small genus of approximately 20 species of bulbous perennial herbaceous plants in the family Amaryllidaceae. The plants have two linear leaves and a single small white drooping bell-shaped flower with six petal-like (petaloid) tepals in two circles (whorls). The smaller inner petals have green markings but not all
Snowdrops have been known since the earliest times under various names, but were named Galanthus in 1753. As the number of recognised species increased, various attempts were made to divide the species into subgroups, usually on the basis of the pattern of the emerging leaves (vernation). In the era of molecular phylogenetics this characteristic has been shown to be unreliable and now seven molecularly defined clades are recognised that correspond to the biogeographical distribution of species. New species continue to be discovered.
Most species flower in winter, before the vernal equinox (20 or 21 March in the Northern Hemisphere), but some flower in early spring and late autumn. Sometimes snowdrops are confused with the two related genera within the tribe Galantheae, snowflakes Leucojum and Acis.

Kingdom:   Plantae
Clade:   Tracheophytes
Clade:   Angiosperms
Clade:   Monocots
Order:   Asparagales
Family:   Amaryllidaceae
Subfamily:   Amaryllidoideae
Tribe:   Galantheae
Genus:   Galanthus
L.
Type species
Galanthus nivalis

All species of Galanthus are perennial petaloid herbaceous bulbous (growing from bulbs) monocot plants. The genus is characterised by the presence of two leaves, pendulous white flowers with six free perianth segments in two whorls. The inner whorl is smaller than the outer whorl and has green markings not all  you might think all snowdrops are all the same, but you'd be mistaken. There are thousands of different snowdrops the new cultivars have been bred without the green markings
Galanthus (from Ancient Greek γάλα, (gála, "milk") + ἄνθος (ánthos, "flower")),
Snowdrops have been known since early times, being described by the classical Greek author Theophrastus, in the fourth century BCE, in his Περὶ φυτῶν ἱστορία (Latin: Historia plantarum, Enquiry into plants)

 Over 1,000 types of cultivated snowdrops all originated from just 20 snowdrop species found in the wild and making up the genus Galanthus. The green are differnt for each variety and some have no green

Galanthus nivalis is the best-known and most widespread representative of the genus Galanthus. It is native to a large area of Europe, stretching from the Pyrenees in the west, through France and Germany to Poland in the north, Italy, northern Greece, Bulgaria, Romania, Ukraine, and European Turkey. It has been introduced and is widely naturalised elsewhere. Although it is often thought of as a British native wild flower, or to have been brought to the British Isles by the Romans, it most likely was introduced around the early sixteenth century, and is currently not a protected species in the UK. It was first recorded as naturalised in the UK in Worcestershire and Gloucestershire in 1770. Most other Galanthus species are from the eastern Mediterranean, while several are found in the Caucasus, in southern Russia, Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan. Galanthus fosteri is found in Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, Turkey, and, perhaps, Palestine.
Most Galanthus species grow best in woodland, in acid or alkaline soil, although some are grassland or mountain species.

HABITAT
They favour damp soil and are often found in broadleaved woodland and along riverbanks, but can also be seen in parks, gardens, meadows and scrub. The species normally flowers in January and February, but there are an increasing number of December flowerings being recorded and even the occasional November sighting.

HISTORY

Originating in Europe, the first recorded cultivation of snowdrops in England is in the 16th century, though many believe they were first brought over much earlier by Norman monks. They were grown in churchyards for Candlemas Day (2nd February) and in Abbeys as a medical plant for the treatment of ‘Mal au Tete’, problems of the head. Interestingly a chemical found in snowdrops, Galanthamine, is now used to treat Alzheimers.

 Species has 1/4-inch, blue-green leaves and 6- to 9-inch stems that support a single flower, 1 inch in diameter.








                                     


Snowdrops are toxic to both animals and humans. If eaten, the result can be dizziness, nausea, diarrhea, and, yes, even death.

Gardens Parks Uses for snowdrop: Although they can be grown in beds and borders, snowdrops are best used for naturalizing. They adapt readily to lawns, meadows, and woods. Although their stems are rather short, they are popular cut flowers. Snowdrop related varieties: Flore Pleno is a double-flowered form of the common snowdrop
Also to feed early insects


Traditionally, snowdrops were used to treat headaches and as a painkiller. In modern medicine a compound in the bulb has been used to develop a dementia treatment.
There are further possible medicinal uses for the snowdrop. Galantamine has been used in the treatment of traumatic injuries to the nervous system and also as an emmenagogue, which stimulates or increases menstrual flow and so can induce an abortion in the early stages of pregnancy










Offline vivian

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Re: Walking around corfu
« Reply #719 on: February 19, 2024, 06:00:38 PM »


HI

Cornivorous Plants

Straight away you think of Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula) Well there aer over 800 species throughout the wold

Carnivorous plants are plants that derive some or most of their nutrients from trapping and consuming animals or protozoans, typically insects and other arthropods, and occasionally small mammals and birds. They still generate all of their energy from photosynthesis. They have adapted to grow in places where the soil is thin or poor in nutrients, especially nitrogen, such as acidic bogs. They can be found on all continents except Antarctica, as well as many Pacific islands. In 1875, Charles Darwin published Insectivorous Plants, the first treatise to recognize the significance of carnivory in plants, describing years of painstaking research. True carnivory is believed to have evolved independently at least 12 times in five different orders of flowering plants, and is represented by more than a dozen genera. This classification includes at least 583 species that attract, trap, and kill prey, absorbing the resulting available nutrients. Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula), pitcher plant (Cephalotus follicularis), and bladderwort (Utricularia gibba) can be seen as exemplars of key traits genetically associated with carnivory: trap leaf development, prey digestion, and nutrient absorption.
The number of known species has increased by approximately 3 species per year since the year 2000. Additionally, over 300 protocarnivorous plant species in several genera show some but not all of these characteristics. A 2020 assessment has found that roughly one quarter are threatened with extinction from human actions.

Plants are considered carnivorous if they have these five traits:

capture prey in traps
kill the captured prey
digest the captured prey
absorb nutrients from the killed and digested prey
use those nutrients to grow and develop

Five basic trapping mechanisms are found in carnivorous plants

Pitfall traps (pitcher plants) trap prey in a rolled leaf that contains a pool of digestive enzymes or bacteria.
Flypaper traps use a sticky mucilage.
Snap traps utilise rapid leaf movements.
Bladder traps suck in prey with a bladder that generates an internal vacuum.
Lobster-pot traps, also known as eel traps, use inward-pointing hairs to force prey to move towards a digestive organ.

HABITAT
 Carnivorous plants are varied but usually involve wet, low-nutrient sites including bogs, swamps, waterbodies, watercourses, forests and sandy or rocky sites.

In Europe, the native carnivorous plants are represented by Aldrovanda, Drosera, Drosophyllum, Pinguicula, and Utricularia. The only endemic European carnivorous plants are in the genus Pinguicula.
 there are many species native to the UK including sundews, butterworts and bladderworts.
To the extent to which molecular phylogenies have been calibrated against the ages of fossils of other plants, these origins of carnivory appear to have occurred between roughly 8 and 72 million years ago

Balkanian Butterwort
Balkanian butterwort is native to the Balkans. The plant can be found in Serbia, North Macedonia, Greece, Bulgaria, and Albania. Like other carnivorous plants, the plant grows in nutrient-poor, acidic, and wet environments, and most cases thrive in high altitude bogs, rocky mountainous places, and near streams.

During spring, the cycle starts with the opening of winter buds and produces the first carnivorous leaf. Following the leaves, flowers are produced between May and August. It also produces seeds between July and September, surviving winter in the hibernaculum.

It is a species of the butterworts that uses its sticky leaves to attract, catch and dissolve the insects to obtain nutrients. That is because they grow in poor acidic soils that lack nutrients.

Interesting Facts:
Besides reproducing by seeds, the plants also reproduce by gemmae.
It produces white flowers

HISTORY

Nepenthe /nɪˈpɛnθi/ (Ancient Greek: νηπενθές, nēpenthés) is a possibly fictional medicine for sorrow – a "drug of forgetfulness" mentioned in ancient Greek literature and Greek mythology, depicted as originating in Egypt.

The carnivorous plant genus Nepenthes is named after the drug nepenthe.












NONE All are considered non-toxic to pets.

Carnivorous plants aren't just for kids. Pitcher plants and Venus Fly Trap are some of Nature's most fascinating plants.
A terrarium is a great way to grow and display carnivorous plants. They maintain humidity and the carnivorous plants help you eliminate insects and pests naturally. Carnivorous plants are native to swamps and live in constantly humid conditions.



Carnivorous Plants are used in a variety of folk preparations and medicines. From Asia, the fluid from young unopened Monkey Pitchers (Nepenthes) is used for drinking, cleaning wounds or treating incontinence, distress and pain.



Stay Nude it ante rude


 

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