Author Topic: Walking around corfu  (Read 365276 times)

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Offline kevin-beverly

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Re: Walking around corfu
« Reply #540 on: April 25, 2021, 11:45:58 AM »

HI Neil

NEIL And there is me thinking it was a good year it was your toenails giving the extra body


Offline Eggy

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Re: Walking around corfu
« Reply #541 on: April 25, 2021, 12:07:15 PM »
Never a "Goodyear" for feet like mine , Kevin. - They get "tyred" too quickly.

Offline kevin-beverly

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Re: Walking around corfu
« Reply #542 on: April 27, 2021, 09:58:47 AM »


You will most probably have seen this tinny bright oranage fruit on your travels around Corfu


Citrus reticulata
 Known as the mandarin or mandarine  is a small citrus tree evergreen . Treated as a distinct species of orange, it is usually eaten plain or in fruit salads. Tangerines are a group of orange-coloured citrus fruit consisting of hybrids of mandarin orange with some pomelo contribution.
Orange, lemon and mandarin trees can be found in almost every single garden in Corfu, as well as kumquats that are both grown for private and commercial uses.
Orange grooves thrive in Dassia, where the sweet smell of orange blossom fills the air. There are also lemon grooves near Kontokali that scent the atmosphere with a refreshing perfume.
 In Dassia, you can visit Merlin Estate which was the property of a well-known English gardener who imported a variety of oranges in the early 20th century. This variety was named 'merlin' after him. He also imported the kumquat tree to Corfu which became the trademark of the island.
Mandarins are smaller and oblate, unlike the spherical common oranges (which are a mandarin–pomelo hybrid). The taste is considered less sour, as well as sweeter and stronger. A ripe mandarin is firm to slightly soft, heavy for its size, and pebbly-skinned. The peel is thin, loose, with little white mesocarp, so they are usually easier to peel and to split into segments. Hybrids usually have these traits to a lesser degree. The mandarin is tender and is damaged easily by cold. It can be grown in tropical and subtropical areas.
Family:   Rutaceae
Genus:   Citrus
Species:   C. reticulata
Binomial name
Citrus reticulata

Mandarin trees enjoy full sun in which grow from 10 to 25 feet tall and wide  but you can buy dwarf plants that are ideal for growing in small gardens and pots.
Mandarin oranges are much more cold-hardy than the sweet orange, and the tree is more tolerant of drought. The fruits are tender and readily damaged by cold.

 The tree trunk and major branches have thorns. The leaves are shiny, green, and rather small. The petioles are short, almost wingless or slightly winged. The flowers are borne singly or in small groups in the leaf-axils. Citrus are usually self-fertile (needing only a bee to move pollen within the same flower) or parthenocarpic (not needing pollination and therefore seedless, such as the satsuma). A mature mandarin tree can yield up to 79 kilograms (175 lb) of fruit.
 Mandarin tree is cultivated, as all citrus fruit, for the consumption of its fruit. Citrus fruit are rich in vitamins C, mineral salts and citric acid.
One extracts from the bark, endowed with many glands, the tangerine essential oil which is used not only in perfumery, but also in chemist's shop to flavor medicines, in the manufacture of liqueurs and in pastry.



Mandarin oranges are also an excellent source of vitamin C, another key nutrient for immune system function, as well as maintaining healthy skin and healing wounds. Vitamin C in food is better absorbed by the body than the mega-dose of vitamin C you would get from a supplement.
fruit salad.
juice – squeezed in a citrus juice – straight or blended with other citrus fruits such as orange and lemondade.
salad – segments tossed in.
salad dressing – add freshly squeezed juice.
dinner – scatter segments on top of a stir fry.
teas – dry the the peel and use in teas.
Grow in a Conservatory

Health Benefits of Mandarin Oranges
Research has revealed that mandarins can lower the risk of developing liver cancer. The carotenoids present mandarin oranges due to high Vitamin A have shown to reduce the risk of liver cancer. Mandarin juice given to hepatitis C patients failed to develop liver cancer because of its high beta cryptoxanthin content. Mandarin has a high level of limonene which has anti-cancer effects and also helps to prevent breast cancer.

Cholesterol Problems
Mandarins produce synephrine which curbs the production of cholesterol in the body. The antioxidants present in Mandarin help to lower bad cholesterol and promote good cholesterol. Mandarins combat the free radicals that oxidize the cholesterol which makes the cholesterol to stick to the artery walls. Further they contain soluble and insoluble fiber like hemicellulose and pectin which prevents cholesterol absorption in the gut.

Blood Pressure
Mandarins also help to lower blood pressure levels. They consist of nutrients and minerals like potassium that lowers the blood pressure. Mandarins keep the blood flow move smoothly through the arteries which keeps the blood pressure normal.

Healthy Immune System
Vitamin C in Mandarin is instrumental in preventing cold and is vital for the proper functioning of a healthy immune system. Mandarins have anti-microbial properties that prevent wounds from getting septic and from viral, fungal and bacterial infections.  Mandarins prevent spasm in the digestive and nervous system thus prevents cramps and vomiting. Mandarin is a natural blood purifier that helps to flush out toxins and unwanted substances from the body.

Skin Health
Vitamin C present in Mandarin is very good for skin both when consumed internally and applied topically on the skin. Regular intake of mandarin juice makes the skin glow and improves the skin tone to a great extent. The antioxidants present in Mandarin protect the skin from harsh UVA rays and help the skin to resist the damage caused by the sun and free radicals. It also reduces the sign of ageing like wrinkles, fine lines and blemishes.

Mandarin comes packed with antioxidants. It can provide 80% of your total daily vitamin C requirement. They help neutralize the harmful toxic effects of free radicals. This makes your skin look younger and healthy.

Improved Skin Tone
Mandarins are a good source of vitamin C and E. Both these are essential for a healthy looking skin. Regular intake of mandarins greatly improves the complexion. It also gives you flawless and blemish-free skin.

Heals Wounds
Mandarin oil (extracted from mandarins) is found to be helpful in growing new cells and tissues. This helps in healing wounds faster.

Fights Wrinkles
Mandarins are popular for fighting signs of ageing like wrinkles and fine lines. They can be either consumed raw or as juice, and can be applied topically as well.

Offline kevin-beverly

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Re: Walking around corfu
« Reply #543 on: May 07, 2021, 10:11:19 AM »


You can see this tree all ovet corfu

Aleppo pine

Pinus halepensis A pine native to the Mediterranean region. Its range extends from Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia and Spain north to southern France, Malta, Italy, Croatia, Montenegro, and Albania, and east to Greece. There is an outlying population (from which it was first described) in Syria, Lebanon, southern Turkey, Palestine, Jordan, and Israel.
Pinus halepensis is generally found at low altitudes, mostly from sea level to 200 m, but can grow above 1,000 m in southern and eastern Spain, well over 1,200 m on Crete, and up to 1,700 m  in the south, in Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia. The tree is able to quickly colonize open and disturbed areas. It can grow on all substrates and almost in all bioclimates in the Mediterranean.

Family:   Pinaceae
Genus:   Pinus
Subgenus:   P. subg. Pinus
Section:   P. sect. Pinus
Subsection:   Pinus subsect. Pinaster
Species:   P. halepensis
Binomial name
Pinus halepensis

halepensis is the most widely distributed and abundant among the Mediterranean pines, covering nearly 6.8 million ha
Pinus patula is planted in production forests but can spread to forest gaps, grassland and shrubland.
sun-loving trees that do not grow well under shady conditions.
Primarily a weed of drier temperate regions that invades open woodlands, forests, grasslands, roadsides, disturbed sites and waste areas.

Pinus halepensis is a small to medium-sized tree, 15–25 m (49–82 ft) tall, with a trunk diameter up to 60 cm (24 in), exceptionally up to 1 m (3 ft 3 in). The bark is orange-red, thick, and deeply fissured at the base of the trunk, and thin and flaky in the upper crown. The leaves ("needles") are very slender, 6–12 cm (2.4–4.7 in) long, distinctly yellowish green, and produced in pairs (rarely a few in threes). The cones are narrow conic, 5–12 cm (2.0–4.7 in) long and 2–3 cm (0.79–1.18 in) broad at the base when closed, green at first, ripening glossy red-brown when 24 months old. They open slowly over the next few years, a process quickened if they are exposed to heat such as in forest fires. The cones open 5–8 cm (2.0–3.1 in) wide to allow the seeds to disperse. The seeds are 5–6 mm (0.20–0.24 in) long, with a 20-mm wing, and are wind-dispersed.

Pinus halepensis is a popular ornamental tree, extensively planted in gardens, parks, and private and agency landscapes in hot dry areas such as Southern California and the Karoo in South Africa, where the Aleppo pine's considerable heat and drought tolerance, fast growth, and aesthetic qualities are highly valued.

The resin of the Aleppo pine is used to flavor the Greek wine retsina.
Retsina (Greek: Ρετσίνα) is a Greek white (or rosé) resinated wine, which has been made for at least 2,000 years. Its unique flavor is said to have originated from the practice of sealing wine vessels, particularly amphorae, with Aleppo Pine resin in ancient times. Before the invention of impermeable glass bottles, oxygen caused many wines to spoil within the year. Pine resin helped keep air out, while infusing the wine with resin aroma. The Romans began to use barrels in the 3rd century AD, removing any oenological necessity for resin, but the flavor itself was so popular that the style is still widespread today.

The earliest recorded mention of using resin with wine amphorae is by the first-century Roman writer Columella, who detailed in his work De Re Rustica
 the different type of resin that could be used to seal a container or be mixed into the wine. He recommended, however, that the very best wines should not be mixed with resin because of the unpleasant flavor introduced thereby. His contemporary, Pliny the Elder, does recommend the use of adding resin to the fermenting wine must in his work Naturalis Historia  with the resin from mountainous areas having a better aroma than those that come from lower lands.
The Roman settlements in Illyria, Cisalpine Gaul and Gallia Narbonensis did not use resin-coated amphorae due to the lack of suitable local pine trees and began to develop solid, less leak-prone wooden barrels in the 1st century AD. By the 3rd century, barrel making was prevalent throughout the Roman Empire. The exception was the eastern empire regions of Byzantium which had developed a taste for the strong, pungent wine and continued to produce resinated wine long after the western Roman empire stopped. The difference in taste between the two empires took center stage in the work of the historian Liutprand of Cremona and his Relatio de Legatione Constantinopolitana. In 968, Liutprand was sent to Constantinople to arrange a marriage between the daughter of the late Emperor Romanos II and the future Holy Roman Emperor Otto II. According to Liutprand, he was treated very rudely and in an undignified manner by the court of Nikephoros II, being served goat stuffed with onion and served in fish sauce and "undrinkable" wine mixed with resin, pitch and gypsum—very offensive to his Germanic tastes.

Pilgrims and Crusaders to the Holy Land during the Middle Ages recorded their experiences with the strong, resin wines of the Greek islands. Pietro Casola, an Italian noble who traveled to Jerusalem in 1494, wrote about the wines and cuisines of the places he stopped at along the way. In one of his entries, about his visit to Modone on Peloponnese, he wrote about the bounty of good quality wines made from Malmsey, Muscatel and Rumney varieties. Everything he tried was pleasing, except the strong, resinated wine with an unpleasant odor.

In Greece, local Retsina is produced throughout the country. Major production centers around Attica, Boeotia and Euboea. The European Union treats the name "Retsina" as a protected designation of origin and traditional appellation for Greece and parts of the southern regions of Cyprus. An Australian wine style made in South Australia can be called "resinated wine" but not "Retsina".
Today the traditional grape for Retsina is Savatiano with Assyrtiko and Rhoditis sometimes blended in, as well as other grape varieties throughout Greece. On the island of Rhodes, Athiri is the main grape. Modern Retsina is made following the same winemaking techniques of white wine or rosé with the exception of small pieces of Aleppo pine resin added to the must during fermentation. The pieces stay mixed with the must, and elute an oily resin film on the liquid surface; at racking the wine is clarified and the solids and surface film are removed from the finished wine.[1] Nowadays, protecting the new wine from oxidation is easy to do with far simpler means and much less resin is used than traditionally called for. Such wines lack the pungent "whiff of turpentine" streak of old, and are considered ideal accompaniments to such strong-tasting local cuisine as pastırma or garlic dips, which are often consumed as mezes with alcoholic beverages.

The wood, sawdust and resins from various species of pine can cause dermatitis in sensitive people. Avoid if allergies. Avoid internally if suffering from asthma or bronchitis. The astringent taste may cause stomach discomfort

It is the most important forest species in North Africa, and is of great ecological significance in southern France and Italy. Due to its irregular shape and poor wood quality, the species is not particularly useful in the forestry industry; however, it is used in the pulp and paper industry, as well as for firewood.
Use in parks,Landscaping,Gardens,
Edible Uses: A resin from the trunk of the tree can be used for chewing and for flavoring wine. ... Pitch can also be obtained from the resin and can be used for waterproofing and as a wood preservative. The wood of the Aleppo pine is not of great use in construction because it has poor quality.
 Alcoholic drinks

Mediterranean medicinal plant with numerous traditional applications such as anti-scarring, antiseptic, astringent, antifungal, and anti-tuberculosis. It is used against diarrhea, wounds, rheumatism, cough, gastrointestinal illnesses, hypertension, and hemorrhoids.
 herbal steam baths and inhalers
very beneficial treatment for a variety of skin complaints

Offline kevin-beverly

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Re: Walking around corfu
« Reply #544 on: May 16, 2021, 10:00:19 AM »


This plant you may or may not see aroun Arillas and Corfu i will tell why you may not see this plant


Spinacia oleracea  Native to central and western Asia is an edible flowering plant in the family of Amaranthaceae.
 It is an annual plant (rarely biennial), which grows to a height of up to 40 cm. Spinach may survive over winter in temperate regions.
 Common spinach, Spinacia oleracea, was long considered to be in the Chenopodiaceae family, but in 2003, the Chenopodiaceae family was combined with the Amaranthaceae family under the family name 'Amaranthaceae' in the order Caryophyllales. Within the Amaranthaceae family, Amaranthoideae and Chenopodioideae are now subfamilies, for the amaranths and the chenopods, respectively.

Family:   Amaranthaceae
Genus:   Spinacia
Species:   S. oleracea
Binomial name
Spinacia oleracea

Spinach doesn't like the heat in summer so if you want it to crop for as long as possible in summer choose a plot of land which is protected from the midday sun. If you grow sweet corn or other tall crops these can provide good shade when it's needed most.

 Is sometimes found in waste areas, gardens and dumps in scattered locations
warm sun but shade midday as this plant does not like full sun

Spinach originally came from Persia (now Iran) where it was known as aspanakh. The green, leafy vegetable made its way to China in the 7th century, when the king of Nepal sent it as a gift. Spinach was eventually brought to Europe in the 11th century, when it was introduced to Spain by the Moors (Muslims).

I read about this plant. The Greeks plant Spinach late summer so can be havest early spring But some Greeks will in summer growing behind a tall plant shielded from the sun And this why you may not see spinach

Spinach is an annual plant (rarely biennial) growing as tall as 30 cm (1 ft). Spinach may overwinter in temperate regions. The leaves are alternate, simple, ovate to triangular, and very variable in size: 2–30 cm (1–12 in) long and 1–15 cm (0.4–5.9 in) broad, with larger leaves at the base of the plant and small leaves higher on the flowering stem. The flowers are inconspicuous, yellow-green, 3–4 mm (0.1–0.2 in) in diameter, and mature into a small, hard, dry, lumpy fruit cluster 5–10 mm (0.2–0.4 in) across containing several seeds

 Advantage is that spinach can be sown in both spring and autumn giving you a crop for five months or more.
Sowing spinach in autumn results in a quick crop which extends the season considerably. The best time to sow seed for an autumn crop is in the second week of September. Seeds can be sown in pots or directly in the ground exactly as described for spring sowings above. You can expect to start harvesting young leaves about six weeks later. If you have a cloche then protecting the crop in November time will extend the harvesting period by two to three weeks.

Spinach is thought to have originated about 2000 years ago in ancient Persia from which it was introduced to India and ancient China via Nepal in 647 AD as the "Persian vegetable". In AD 827, the Saracens introduced spinach to Sicily. The first written evidence of spinach in the Mediterranean was recorded in three 10th-century works: a medical work by al-Rāzī (known as Rhazes in the West) and in two agricultural treatises, one by Ibn Waḥshīyah and the other by Qusṭus al-Rūmī. Spinach became a popular vegetable in the Arab Mediterranean and arrived in Spain by the latter part of the 12th century, where Ibn al-ʻAwwām called it raʼīs al-buqūl, 'the chieftain of leafy greens'. Spinach was also the subject of a special treatise in the 11th century by Ibn Ḥajjāj.
Spinach first appeared in England and France in the 14th century, probably via Spain, and gained common use because it appeared in early spring when fresh local vegetables were not available. Spinach is mentioned in the first known English cookbook, the Forme of Cury (1390), where it is referred to as 'spinnedge' and/or 'spynoches'.During World War I, wine fortified with spinach juice was given to injured French soldiers with the intent to curtail their bleeding

The comics and cartoon character Popeye the Sailor Man has been portrayed since 1931 as having a strong affinity for spinach, particularly the canned variety. He becomes physically stronger after consuming it. This is usually attributed to the iron content of spinach, but in a 1932 strip, Popeye says "spinach is full of vitamin A an' tha's what makes hoomans strong and helty"

There are no side effects of eating spinach every day if consumed in limited quantities. Disadvantages of eating spinach in excess every day are as follows: Oxalic acid and purines: Eating too much spinach can interfere with the ability of the body to absorb minerals.

Can be grown in pots
These leafy greens are a popular ingredient for salads and side dishes. Their flavor is mild, so it mixes nicely with other items while providing health benefits to any meal. It's a fantastic addition to omelets, scrambles, lasagnas, and quiches. There are a handful of different types of spinach to choose from.

The leaves are used for food and to make medicine. As a medicine, spinach is used to treat stomach and intestinal (gastrointestinal, GI) complaints and fatigue. It is also used as a blood-builder and an appetite stimulant. Some people use it for promoting growth in children and recovery from illness.
Spinach has vitamins and minerals like vitamin E and magnesium that support your immune system. This system keeps you safe from viruses and bacteria that cause disease. It also defends your body from other things that can hurt you, like toxins
Many people with reduced kidney function must limit sodium intake. Many dark green vegetables such as spinach and kale provide lots of vitamin K which helps the blood clot. For a dialysis patient or someone taking blood thinners, a high dietary intake of vitamin K can lead to increased clotting of the blood.
To get maximum benefits of spinach juice, it is recommended to have it once or twice a week in the morning. It is also recommended for healthy hair growth, glowing skin and to detoxify the body.

Offline kevin-beverly

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Re: Walking around corfu
« Reply #545 on: May 27, 2021, 11:38:36 AM »


This plant you would walk past thinking it is a weed


Geum  Is a genus of about 50 species of rhizomatous perennial herbaceous plants in the rose family and its subfamily Rosoideae, widespread across Europe, Asia, North and South America, Africa, and New Zealand. They are closely related to Potentilla and Fragaria. From a basal rosette of leaves, they produce flowers on wiry stalks, in shades of white, red, yellow, and orange, in midsummer. Geum species are evergreen except where winter temperatures drop below 0 °F (−18 °C). The cultivars 'Lady Stratheden' (with yellow flowers), and 'Mrs J. Bradshaw' (with orange flowers) have gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit.
Geums are popular hardy perennials that can flower from late spring into summer and sometimes as late as autumn. They have semi-evergreen foliage and offer flowers usually of yellow, orange and red. Most geums reach a height of 50cm so are perfect for the front or middle of a border.

Family:   Rosaceae
Tribe:   Colurieae
Genus:   Geum
List of Geum species
Geum albiflorum
Geum aleppicum – yellow avens or common avens
Geum bulgaricum
Geum calthifolium
Geum canadense – white avens
Geum × catlingii – Catling's avens
Geum coccineum – dwarf orange avens
Geum elatum
Geum geniculatum – bent avens
Geum heterocarpum
Geum japonicum - Asian herb bennet (medicinal herb)
Geum laciniatum – rough avens
Geum leiospermum
Geum macrophyllum – largeleaf avens
Geum molle
Geum montanum – Alpine avens
Geum parviflorum
Geum peckii – mountain avens
Geum pentapetalum
Geum pyrenaicum
Geum quellyon – scarlet avens or Chilean avens
Geum radiatum – spreading avens, Appalachian avens, and cliff avens
Geum reptans – creeping avens
Geum rhodopeum
Geum rivale – water avens or purple avens
Geum rossii – Alpine avens
Geum sikkimense
Geum sylvaticum
Geum talbotianum – Tasmanian snowrose
Geum triflorum – prairie smoke or three-flowered avens
Geum turbinatum
Geum uniflorum
Geum urbanum – wood avens or herb Bennet
Geum vernum – spring avens
Geum virginianum – cream avens or Virginia avens

The plant is a native perennial of slow-draining or wet soils and can tolerate mildly acidic to calcareous conditions in full sun or under partial shade. Habitats include stream sides, pond edges, damp deciduous woodland and hay meadows. Geum rivale is pollinated primarily by bees, less often by flies and beetles.

Flowers are rather small for the size of the plant, are on solitary, terminal stalks and about 1 – 2 cm in diameter. Corolla is composed of five roundish, spreading, yellow petals, the calyx cleft into ten segments – five large and five small – as in the Silverweed. Flowering normally takes place from May and August. Fruit is actually formed of a mass of dark crimson achenes, each terminating in an awn, the end of which is curved into a hook.

 ‘Totally Tangerine’ was the geum that first won over the Chelsea crowds,

The mountain avens (genus Dryas) are closely related and consist of some three species of evergreen shrubs. The flowers of those species have eight petals instead of the typical five that are common in the family.

The leaf
Radical leaves are borne on long, channelled foot-stalks, and are interruptedly pinnate. The upper leaves on the stem are made up of three long, narrow leaflets: those lower on the stems have the three leaflets round and full.

Avens has a botanical name “Geum” that comes from the Greek word geno, a word that means to “yield an agreeable fragrance”; one reason for this name is that when the root is dug up fresh, it has an aroma that is similar to the smell of cloves. Avens is a remedial herb with numerous medical benefits. Previously, the root of some Avens was used in cooking purposes as a substitute for cloves. The Avens root (except Water Avens) smells and tastes like cloves. This helps in the identification of Avens.


In pots tubs in landscape Gardens Used as a spice in soups, stews etc, and also as a flavouring in ale
 is a substitute for cloves with a hint of cinnamon in the flavour
 The root is also boiled to make a beverage
 It can be used as a spice in the same way as you may use cloves – as a warm “​mulling” flavour (try infusing into sloe gin or eldeberry ice cream),

Geum urbanum herb and roots have been used in the traditional Austrian medicine internally as tea for treatment of rheumatism, gout, infections, and fever. Modern herbalists use it to treat diarrhea, heart disease, halitosis and mouth ulcers, and to prevent colic. Not all of these uses are supported by scientific evidence. Listed below are few of the health benefits of using Avens
Helpful in Cases of Menstruation
Avens are known to be very much helpful in treating excessive vaginal discharge while at the same time relieving the symptoms of PMS.

Helps in Relieving Fever
Avens are one of the common herbs which have been utilized for relieving issues such as fever. It can be stored in the dried form and the can be used as first aid in numerous such conditions.

Maintain Oral Health
This herb is extensively being used in maintaining the oral health and thus tightening of gums as well as treating any oral issue being caused. It also helps in treating any throat allergy while at the same time maintaining the stomach health.

Acts an anti-dote for some poison
Roots of this herb is also known to act against the issues of food poisoning and are a good option to consume in case suffering from poisoning due to alkaloids as well as heavy metal poisoning.

Helps in Maintaining Skin Health
 The decoction produced from the roots of this herb is utilized for treating scars as well as wrinkles on the skin. It is one of the very common ingredients utilized in numerous beauty creams.

Helpful in treating a number of Digestive Issues
This herb has been known to be utilized in treating number of digestive issues such as diarrhea as well as bowel infections. Powder produced from its roots has been known to facilitate easy digestion as well as absorption of food.

Helps in Maintaining the Health of Liver
This herb is also known to facilitate the process of detoxification in the body. It mostly clears the liver out of its toxins and is utilized for maintaining its health.

Treatment for Hemorrhoids
This herb is also utilized in treatment of symptoms which lead to hemorrhoids. These are used in the ointments which are made as cure for these issues.

Traditional uses and benefits of Avens

Wood avens is an astringent herb, used mainly to treat problems affecting the mouth, throat and gastro-intestinal tract.
It tightens up soft gums, heals mouth ulcers, makes a good gargle for infections of the pharynx and larynx, and decreases irritation of the stomach and gut.
All parts of the plant, but particularly the root, are anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, aromatic, astringent, diaphoretic, febrifuge, stomachic, styptic and tonic.
An infusion is taken internally in the treatment of diarrhea, intestinal disorders, stomach upsets, irritable bowel syndrome and liver disorders.
It is also applied externally as a wash to hemorrhoids, vaginal discharges etc. and to treat various skin afflictions.
It is said to remove spots, freckles and eruptions from the face.
Powdered root had a great reputation as a substitute for quinine in the treatment of intermittent fevers.
Wood avens was stated to be a treatment for poison and dog bites.
Geum urbanum herb and roots have been used in the traditional Austrian medicine internally as tea for treatment of rheumatism, gout, infections, and fever.
Modern herbalists use it to treat diarrhea, heart disease, halitosis and mouth ulcers, and to prevent colic.

Offline kevin-beverly

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Re: Walking around corfu
« Reply #546 on: June 02, 2021, 09:48:38 AM »


Ash Tree

Fraxinus  is a genus of flowering plants in the olive and lilac family, Oleaceae. It contains 45–65 species of usually medium to large trees, mostly deciduous, though a number of subtropical species are evergreen. The genus is widespread across much of Europe, Asia, and North America.
 The seeds, popularly known as "keys" or "helicopter seeds", are a type of fruit known as a samara. Some Fraxinus species are dioecious, having male and female flowers on separate plants but sex in ash is expressed as a continuum between male and female individuals, dominated by unisexual trees. With age, ash may change their sexual function from predominantly male and hermaphrodite towards femaleness; if grown as an ornamental and both sexes are present, ashes can cause a considerable litter problem with their seeds. Rowans or mountain ashes have leaves and buds superficially similar to those of true ashes, but belong to the unrelated genus Sorbus in the rose family.

Family:   Oleaceae
Tribe:   Oleeae
Subtribe:   Fraxininae
Genus:   Fraxinus

The Flora Europaea lists four species of Fraxinus native to Europe including F. ornus and F. excelsior, which are explicitly named above as producing manna. F. excelsior is the only species which grows in northern Europe, and must have been the model for the world ash Yggdrasil. It grows only as far south as what the ancients called Macedonia. However F. ornus is widespread in Greece, and the two remaining European species of ash are found there also

Family:   Oleaceae
Genus:   Fraxinus
Section:   Fraxinus sect. Ornus
Species:   F. ornus
Binomial name
Fraxinus ornus

Fraxinus ornus is a medium-sized deciduous tree growing to 15–25 m (49–82 ft) tall with a trunk up to 1 m diameter. The bark is dark grey, remaining smooth even on old trees.
The buds are pale pinkish-brown to grey-brown, with a dense covering of short grey hairs.
The leaves are in opposite pairs, pinnate, 20–30 cm  long, with 5 to 9 leaflets; the leaflets are broad ovoid, 5–10 mm long and 2–4 cm  broad, with a finely serrated and wavy margin, and short but distinct petiolules 5–15 mm  long; the autumn colour is variable, yellow to purplish.
The flowers are produced in dense panicles 10–20 cm  long after the new leaves appear in late spring, each flower with four slender creamy white petals 5–6 mm long; they are pollinated by insects.
The fruit is a slender samara 1.5–2.5 cm  long, the seed 2 mm broad and the wing 4–5 mm broad, green ripening brown
Fraxinus ornus is frequently grown as an ornamental tree in Europe north of its native range for its decorative flowers
A sugary extract from the sap may be obtained by making a cut in the bark; this was compared in late medieval times (attested by around 1400 AD with the biblical manna, giving rise to the English name of the tree, and some of the vernacular names from its native area (fresno del maná in Spanish, frassino da manna in Italian). In fact, the sugar mannose and the sugar alcohol mannitol both derive their names from the extract.
sugary substance which the ancient Greeks called méli, i.e. honey

Ash tree grows in cool and warm climate, on the moist, well drained soil, in areas that provide enough direct sunlight.
Mixed woodland, thickets and rocky, mainly on limestone

Ash tree : A small spring-flowering deciduous tree. It secretes a sweet sap known as manna in July and August which was harvested by the ancients. Manna was believed to be closely related to honey (the word for both was meli in Greek). The tree was said to have been first sprung from the blood of heaven, and its manna was often described as the sky-fallen juice of the stars. The stem of the young ash was in the crafting spear-shafts.
Zeus (manna juice), Kouretes & Ares (ash-spears)
Nymphai Meliai. The Meliai were the Nymphs of the manna ash-tree who were born from the blood of the castrated Ouranos which splattered upon the earth. They were entrusted with the raising of the infant Zeus whom they fed on the honey and the milk of the goat Amaltheia. The Meliai were also the ancestresses of mankind. (Source: Hesiod, Apollodorus, Callimachus,
et al)
 Pelian Ash Spear. The spear of Akhilleus, the great hero of the Trojan War, was crafted by the centaur Kheiron for his father Peleus from an ash growing on Mount Pelion.

It is good quality, heavy, with narrow annual rings and a small difference between sapwood and heartwood. However, its timber wood is of low economic interest, as trees develop small and poorly-shaped trunks with many defects, so it is mainly used for small tool handles and household items
Ash is used for furniture, flooring, doors, cabinetry, architectural moulding and millwork, tool handles, baseball bats, hockey sticks, oars, turnings, and is also sliced for veneer. It is a popular species for food containers due to the wood having no taste.

Contact with the sap has caused skin or systemic allergic reactions in some people

Gardens Parks Landscapes
Manna ash forests are managed as mixed coppices for firewood production. In few rural areas of Sicily this ash is still cultivated for the production of manna, the crystallised sap, which has a bitter- sweet taste and it is used as sweetener, laxative and digestive.
Ash is used for furniture, flooring, doors, cabinetry, architectural moulding and millwork, tool handles, baseball bats, hockey sticks, oars, turnings, and is also sliced for veneer. It is a popular species for food containers due to the wood having no taste.
Manna' is also used in food industry as sweetener, because of its high sugar content.

Manna is a plant. Its dried sap is used to make medicine. People use the dried sap of manna as a laxative for constipation. They also use it as a stool softener to relieve pain during bowel movements caused by cracks around the anus (anal fissures), hemorrhoids, and rectal surgery
It was once an ancient remedy for snake bites, and was believed to cure many other ailments from obesity to leprosy! The tree was also used to treat jaundice, kidney and bladder stones, flatulence, warts, ringworm, and earache

Offline Erja

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Re: Walking around corfu
« Reply #547 on: June 02, 2021, 04:06:18 PM »

Manna is a plant. Its dried sap is used to make medicine. People use the dried sap of manna as a laxative for constipation. They also use it as a stool softener to relieve pain during bowel movements caused by cracks around the anus (anal fissures), hemorrhoids, and rectal surgery
It was once an ancient remedy for snake bites, and was believed to cure many other ailments from obesity to leprosy! The tree was also used to treat jaundice, kidney and bladder stones, flatulence, warts, ringworm, and earache

Wowza how my eyes watered reading this :D
Life is good ;)

Offline Eggy

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Re: Walking around corfu
« Reply #548 on: June 02, 2021, 06:06:41 PM »
Donja just luvit when Kevin talks dirty?????
(We gotta stool in the garden.... I blame the cat!!!)
I am really glad a snake has not bitten me in the ass or any private bits...
The doctor would say "Rectum" - I woud say "Well , it hasn't done them any good!)

Offline kevin-beverly

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Re: Walking around corfu
« Reply #549 on: June 03, 2021, 10:41:14 AM »

HI Neil & Erja

Would they break a branch off with sap on and use is for your hemorrhoids


Offline kevin-beverly

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Re: Walking around corfu
« Reply #550 on: June 03, 2021, 01:05:19 PM »


 London plane trees Platanus × acerifolia you can see this tree around Arillas
If you got one near where you live and the leaves are falling off looking like autumn well this is why


Anthracnose causes the wilting, withering, and dying of tissues. It commonly infects the developing shoots and leaves. The causative fungi (usually Colletotrichum or Gloeosporium) characteristically produce spores in tiny, sunken, saucer-shaped fruiting bodies known as acervuli. This can cause leaf drop, twig dieback, cankers and the sudden death of more than 90% of a tree’s new shoot growth. Although the disease is rarely fatal and trees will grow a second set of leaves, repeat infections will result in abnormal branching and will leave a tree stressed and more susceptible to other diseases and pests. American sycamore or buttonwood (Platanus occidentalis), London plane tree (P. x acerifolia) and Oriental plane tree (P. orientalis) may all be affected by sycamore anthracnose.

Anthracnose is common and widespread in many countries, among them the United Kingdom, continental Europe, the USA, Russia and New Zealand.

The sycamore anthracnose fungus, Apiognomonia veneta, overwinters in diseased leaves and in cankers on twigs and branches. Spores are produced in spring and spread by rain. If the mean daily temperatures are 50 – 55 degrees F., the spores will germinate and the resulting infections will cause the death of new buds,
Plane trees are widely used in towns and cities as shade and amenity trees because they tolerate urban conditions well, including air pollution and water shortages.
management too expensive for the local authorities and other public organisations which manage most of our plane trees, and they discontinue using plane. Few other tree species are as well-suited to the role currently fulfilled by plane trees

Macro-injection of a sycamore tree. All the chemical goes directily into the tree. Pet, children, and neighbor friendly.


Non-chemical, cultural methods can be used to control infection: rake up and burn fallen leaves, if practicable, to break the fungus's life cycle. It might be possible to prune out affected twigs or branches on young, small trees.

A second crop of leaves may be produced from mid-June into July after loss of the first set. Protect this second set of leaves with fungicide sprays if cool, moist conditions exist. Fungicides registered for the control of sycamore anthracnose include chlorothalonil (Daconil Zn, Daconil Ultrex and Daconil Weather Stik.

This task can not be done in Towns,Citys The cost factors

Offline kevin-beverly

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Re: Walking around corfu
« Reply #551 on: June 04, 2021, 09:54:48 AM »


Ash Tree Die Back

Hymenoscyphus fraxineus is an Ascomycete fungus that causes ash dieback,

[ Ascomycota is a phylum of the kingdom Fungi that, together with the Basidiomycota, forms the subkingdom Dikarya. Its members are commonly known as the sac fungi or ascomycetes. It is the largest phylum of Fungi, with over 64,000 species. The defining feature of this fungal group is the "ascus" (from Greek: ἀσκός (askos), meaning "sac" or "wineskin"), a microscopic sexual structure in which nonmotile spores, called ascospores, are formed. However, some species of the Ascomycota are asexual, meaning that they do not have a sexual cycle and thus do not form asci or ascospores. Familiar examples of sac fungi include morels, truffles, brewer's yeast and baker's yeast, dead man's fingers, and cup fungi. The fungal symbionts in the majority of lichens (loosely termed "ascolichens") such as Cladonia belong to the Ascomycota. ]

 a chronic fungal disease of ash trees in Europe characterised by leaf loss and crown dieback in infected trees. The fungus was first scientifically described in 2006 under the name Chalara fraxinea. Four years later it was discovered that Chalara fraxinea is the asexual (anamorphic) stage of a fungus that was subsequently named Hymenoscyphus pseudoalbidus and then renamed as Hymenoscyphus fraxineus.

Trees reported dying in Poland in 1992 are now believed to have been infected with this pathogen. It is now widespread in Europe, with up to 85% mortality rates recorded in plantations and 69% in woodlands. It is closely related to a native fungus Hymenoscyphus albidus, which is harmless to European ash trees. According to a report published in the Journal of Ecology a combination of H. fraxineus and emerald ash borer attacks could wipe out European ash trees.

It has been estimated the safety cost of dealing with ash dieback across the UK could be £15bn in the future.

The disease has been making its way across Europe for decades.
It is believed to have arrived in Northern Ireland in 2012 through imported saplings which were infected.

Symptoms of ash dieback include leaf loss, crown dieback and bark lesions in affected trees and heavily affected trees can become brittle and unstable. Affected trees are particularly hazardous when near a road, property or in areas of public access. In these circumstances a proactive approach and management plan is essential.
Infection leads to dead branches throughout the crown. Not all ash trees will die as a direct result of ash dieback infection. A tree may be weakened so it becomes susceptible to other pests or diseases, and some trees will survive infection.
A study suggests that some types of environment help block the spread of ash dieback disease, which threatens millions of ash trees in the UK. Landscapes with hedgerows and woods made up of several types of tree resisted the pathogen better than areas where ash trees predominated.

There is currently no cure for chalara ash dieback, and no clear method for stopping its spread. Therefore the aim of management, as outlined in the National Chalara Management Plan, should be to slow the spread, minimise the impact of the disease, and preserve as many chalara-tolerant ash trees as possible.

development of resistant ash trees is on going

Offline kevin-beverly

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Re: Walking around corfu
« Reply #552 on: June 11, 2021, 10:34:00 AM »


You will see this plant around Arillas roadside


Arctium lappa  a genus of biennial plants commonly known as burdock, family Asteraceae. Native to Europe and Asia, several species have been widely introduced worldwide.
Burdock also is known as bardana, beggar's buttons, clotbur, edible burdock, Fructus arctii, great bur, great burdocks, lappa, and Niu Bang Zi (Chinese).
 It has become an invasive weed of high-nitrogen soils in North America, Australia, and other regionsand all around the world
Greater burdock is a biennial plant, rather tall, reaching as much as 3 m (10 ft). It has large, alternating, cordiform leaves that have a long petiole and are pubescent on the underside.
The flowers are purple and grouped in globular capitula, united in clusters. They appear in mid-summer, from July to September. The capitula are surrounded by an involucre made out of many bracts, each curving to form a hook, allowing the mature fruits to be carried long distances on the fur of animals. The fruits are achenes; they are long, compressed, with short pappus hairs. These are a potential hazard for humans, horses, and dogs. The minute, sharply-pointed, bristly pappus hairs easily detach from the top of the achenes and are carried by the slightest breeze – attaching to skin, mucous membranes, and eyes where they can cause severe dermal irritation, possible respiratory manifestations, and ophthalmia. The fleshy tap-root can grow up to 1 m (3 ft 3 in) deep
This species is native to the temperate regions of the Old World, from Scandinavia to the Mediterranean, and from the British Isles through Russia, and the Middle East to India, China, Taiwan and Japan.
It is naturalized almost everywhere and is usually found in disturbed areas, especially in soil rich in nitrogen. It is commonly cultivated in Japan where it gives its name to a particular construction technique, burdock piling.
The leaves of greater burdock provide food for the caterpillars of some Lepidoptera, such as the thistle ermine (Myelois circumvoluta).

Family:   Asteraceae
Subfamily:   Carduoideae
Tribe:   Cynareae
Genus:   Arctium
Anura (Juz.) Tschern.
Arcium Rupr.
Arcion Bubani
Bardana Hill
Lappa Tourn. ex Scop.

 Thrives along river banks, disturbed land, roadsides, vacant lots, and full sun to partial shade, in a range of soil conditions, usually along rights-of-way, paths, woodland edges.

Great burdock has been used medicinally at least since the Middle Ages, when ancient practitioners in China, India and Europe prescribed it as a tonic to purify the blood. It was also used to treat a variety of maladies, including constipation, cough, hair loss, gout, arthritis, kidney stones, urinary problems, respiratory disorders, sciatica and intestinal issues.
Read more at Gardening Know How: History Of Edible Burdock Plants

Burdock being a somewhat ungainly plant with little to speak of in the department of blooms and fragrance, hasn’t gained a lot of fame in lore or folk traditions. It is mentioned in an ancient land-remedy ritual said to improve the crops from the field and remove any sorcery cast upon the land.
“At night, before daybreak, take four sods from four sides of the land, and note how they previously stood. Then take oil and honey and barm, and milk of all cattle on the land, and part of every kind of tree growing on the land, except hard trees, and part of every known herb except burdock alone; and put holy water thereon, and then sprinkle [holy water] thrice on the bottom of the sods, and then say these words: ‘Crescite, et multiplicamini, et replete terram.’” (Grow, and multiply, and replenish, the earth.)
Anglo Saxon historians believe that perhaps that burdock had an association with evil spirits and was consequently excluded from the ritual
The only other traditional use that has been shared seems to be that during a harvest festival in eastern Berwickshire: Young people would pelt everyone with bundles of burrs until they were covered in “sediments of white hairs, which gave the appearance of having been wrapt in a woolen blanket.”

In parts of Europe, it was thought to determine if a love was true. If you throw a burr at the hem of your love and it stuck, your lover was true. If the burr did not stick or fell off, it meant their affection would not be reciprocated.

Burdock's genus name is Aretium which derived from the Greek word “arctos” or bear. The species, lappa is also Greek, meaning to seize or Celtic roots use “llap” which means hand. Referring to its common name (Burdock), “Burr” comes from "Burra" which means wool in Latin, as the burrs of the plant would often get caught on the fur or wool of animals. The second part of the word "Dock" is Flemish, referring to its very large leaves.

all photos are of ARCTIUM LAPPA

Burdock is not toxic but because of its spiny burs it can become attached to animals fur and cause trauma. Burs attached to eye lashes in horses can cause corneal ulcers.

Food drinks   Roots can be eaten cooked as a boiled or fried vegetable. It is more common in Asian cooking in Japan and China. The leaves and stalk can also be used as a wild edible salad vegetable. 
The large heart-shaped leaves were used as masks by actors in Ancient Greece. The prickly burs helped to inspire the invention of velcro.

People take burdock to increase urine flow, kill germs, reduce fever, and “purify” their blood. It is also used to treat colds, cancer, anorexia nervosa, gastrointestinal (GI) complaints, joint pain (rheumatism), gout, bladder infections, complications of syphilis, and skin conditions including acne and psoriasis.
 Burdock is also used for high blood pressure, “hardening of the arteries” (arteriosclerosis), and liver disease. Some people use burdock to increase sex drive.
Burdock is applied to the skin for dry skin (ichthyosis), acne, psoriasis, and eczema.
Breast cancer. Early research suggest that using a specific product containing burdock root, sheep sorrel, slippery elm bark, and rhubarb (Essiac, Resperin Canada Limited) does not improve quality of life in people with breast cancer.
Diabetes. Early research suggests that eating batter prepared from dried burdock root together with butter, water, salt, artificial sweetener, and ginger extract prevents a spike in blood sugar after eating in people with diabetes.

Offline kevin-beverly

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Re: Walking around corfu
« Reply #553 on: June 20, 2021, 12:16:52 PM »


You most probably see this plant on higher ground in rocks and walls cliff face


Erigeron Other common names are Its English name, fleabane,  Mexican fleabane, Latin American fleabane, Santa Barbara daisy,  Spanish daisy, Dependable Daisy, Karwinsky's fleabane, bony-tip fleabane.  Is a large genus of plants in the daisy family. It is closely related to the genus Aster and the true daisy Bellis. The genus has a cosmopolitan distribution in dry, mountainous areas and grassland, with the highest diversity
The generic name Erigeron is derived from the Ancient Greek words ἦρι (êri) "early in the morning" and γέρων (gérōn) "old man", a reference to the appearance of the white hairs of the fruit soon after flowering or possibly alluding to the early appearance of the seed heads.The noun γέρων is masculine, so that specific epithets should have masculine endings (e.g. glaucus) to agree with it. However, authors have incorrectly used neuter endings (e.g. glaucum), because the ending -on resembles the ending of Ancient Greek neuter second declension nouns, as Augustin Pyramus de Candolle did in his 1836 account of the genus.
Family:   Asteraceae
Subfamily:   Asteroideae
Supertribe:   Asterodae
Tribe:   Astereae
Genus:   Erigeron
Around 460 species found in temperate climates around the world.
The species may be annuals, biennials, or perennials. They are well-branched with erect stems, characterized by their numerous white, lavender, or pink ray flowers and yellow disc flowers. Some members of this group have no ray flowers. The pappus (=modified calyx, forming a crown) is shorter than in Aster, and consists of bristles. The ray florets are narrower than in Aster, but are clearly longer than the involucre (=whorled bracts).
Erigeron likes a sunny position, and although advice is to plant it in well drained soil which does not dry out, in fact Erigeron is tough and will grown on steps and in wall crevices. It will grow to a maximum height of . 5m, suitable for all soil types and fully hardy.
Fleabane is often seen thriving in pastures, in open spaces, or along roadsides because it produces seeds prolifically;
include sand dunes, quarries, waste areas, walls and rock outcrops. Grows readily from seed sown at any time of the year.  and seaside gardens.
Flowering Period May | Jun | Jul | Aug | Sep

Many species are used as ornamental plants, with numerous named cultivars such as 'Wayne Roderick', 'Charity', 'Foersters Liebling', and 'Dunkelste aller' ("The darkest of all" with semidouble, deep-violet flower heads)
Grows up to 1-2 ft. tall (30-60 cm) and 3-5 ft. wide (90-150 cm). This plant can self-seed and become invasive if given rich soil and moderate water.

 is native to much of Mexico, Central America, Colombia and Venezuela. and is naturalized in many other places, including parts of Africa and Europe, Australia, Hong Kong, Chile and the west coast of the United States.

 Is shared with related plants in several other genera. It appears to be derived from a belief that the dried plants repelled fleas or that the plants were poisonous to fleas.

These plants are often considered to be a reasonably safe pest deterrent to plant in gardens with dogs, and can be found growing wild in many areas. The sap, however, is known to cause a contact rash and ingesting this plant may cause gastrointestinal upset in canines, including vomiting and diarrhea.

Gardens pots tubs Only the leaves are edible. They are hairy so they have a somewhat 'furry' texture making eating them raw not exactly too pleasing
Native Americans used it in their smoking mixture, and for a variety of medical problems including hemorrhages, colds, coughs, diarrhea, headache, and bad vision. They smoked it, snuffed it, and mixed it with other herbs as a poultice.

In traditional North American herbal medicine, Canada fleabane was boiled to make steam for sweat lodges, taken as a snuff to stimulate sneezing during the course of a cold and burned to create a smoke that warded off insects. Nowadays it is valued most for its astringency, being used in the treatment of gastro-intestinal problems such as diarrhoea and dysentery. It is said to be a very effective treatment for bleeding haemorrhoids. The whole plant is antirheumatic, astringent, balsamic, diuretic, emmenagogue, styptic, tonic and vermifuge. It can be harvested at any time that it is in flower and is best used when fresh. The dried herb should not be stored for more than a year. The seeds can also be used. An infusion of the plant has been used to treat diarrhoea and internal haemorrhages or applied externally to treat gonorrhoea and bleeding piles. The leaves are experimentally hypoglycaemic. The essential oil found in the leaves is used in the treatment of diarrhoea, dysentery and internal haemorrhages. It is a uterine stimulant and is also said to be valuable in the treatment of inflamed tonsils plus ulceration and inflammation of the throat. A tea of the boiled roots is used to treat menstrual irregularities. A homeopathic remedy is made from the plant. It is used in the treatment of haemorrhoids and painful menstruation.

Offline kevin-beverly

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Re: Walking around corfu
« Reply #554 on: June 28, 2021, 10:11:00 AM »


This plant can grow on Corfu i have not seen this plant it is grown by individual persons not on a big scale


Curcuma longa  Is a flowering plant of the ginger family Zingiberaceae  The plant is a perennial, rhizomatous, herbaceous plant native to the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia, that requires temperatures between 20 and 30 °C (68 and 86 °F) and a considerable amount of annual rainfall to thrive. Plants are gathered each year for their rhizomes, some for propagation in the following season and some for consumption.
 This is a tropical plant and so it is not possible to grow it outside or in an unheated space in the UK.
Around 80 percent of the world's turmeric is grown in India.
 There are about 100 species that belong to the Curcuma genus.
Scientific classificationedit
Kingdom:   Plantae
Clade:   Tracheophytes
Clade:   Angiosperms
Clade:   Monocots
Clade:   Commelinids
Order:   Zingiberales
Family:   Zingiberaceae
Genus:   Curcuma
Species:   C. longa
Binomial name
Curcuma longa

Turmeric plants reach about 1 metre (3.3 feet) in height and bear long simple leaves with long petioles (leaf stems). The leaves emerge from the branching rhizomes that lie just below the soil surface. Older rhizomes are somewhat scaly and brown in colour, while young rhizomes are pale yellow to brown-orange. The small yellow-orange flowers are borne in the axils of waxy bracts that are usually pale green or tinged with purple.

 It grows in a humid warm weather with a lot of rainfall.  Appropriate temperature for Turmeric is  between 20 °C and 30 °C (68 °F and 86 °F) . It needs  light for growing, then open fields are the best for this plant.
In East Asia, the flowering time is usually in August. Terminally on the false stem is an inflorescence stem, 12 to 20 cm (4+1⁄2 to 8 in) long, containing many flowers. The bracts are light green and ovate to oblong with a blunt upper end with a length of 3 to 5 cm (1 to 2 in).

This plant is a wide spread, and it has many different common names: Turmeric, Jiang Huang, Ukon, Renet, Rame, Temu Kuning, Temu Kunyit, and Tius.
It  cultivated in 3000 B.C by Harappan civilization.
It is the largest family of Zingiberales. It IS  found in the old world especially Southeast Asia.
. The phylogeny, relationships, intraspecific and interspecific variation, and even identity of other species and cultivars in other parts of the world still need to be established and validated. Various species currently utilized and sold as "turmeric" in other parts of Asia have been shown to belong to several physically similar taxa, with overlapping local names.

Turmeric has been used in Asia for centuries and is a major part of Ayurveda, Siddha medicine, traditional Chinese medicine, Unani, and the animistic rituals of Austronesian peoples. It was first used as a dye, and then later for its supposed properties in folk medicine.
From India, it spread to Southeast Asia along with Hinduism and Buddhism, as the yellow dye is used to color the robes of monks and priests. Turmeric has also been found in Tahiti, Hawaii and Easter Island before European contact. There is linguistic and circumstantial evidence of the spread and use of turmeric by the Austronesian peoples into Oceania and Madagascar. The populations in Polynesia and Micronesia, in particular, never came into contact with India, but use turmeric widely for both food and dye. Thus independent domestication events are also likely.
Turmeric was found in Farmana, dating to between 2600 and 2200 BCE, and in a merchant's tomb in Megiddo, Israel dating from the second millennium BCE. It was noted as a dye plant in the Assyrians Cuneiform medical texts from Ashurbanipal’s library at Nineveh from 7th century BCE. In Medieval Europe, turmeric was called "Indian saffron.

Turmeric and curcumin are considered safe for most people. There are few if any reports of people experiencing negative reactions to typical amounts of turmeric in food, and curcumin supplements are generally well tolerated. Taking curcumin supplements may suppress iron absorption.

It served as a tea in Japan.
It is  widely used in beverage, ice-cream, yogurts, and cakes.
Some Indonesians used it to dye their body in the wedding as a part of wedding ritual.
Some Indian women use turmeric  paste to remove their body hair.

traditionally used in Asian countries as a medical herb due to its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic, antimicrobial, and anticancer properties
Scientists now believe that chronic low-level inflammation can play a role in some health conditions and diseases. These include
heart disease
metabolic syndrome
Alzheimer’s disease
various degenerative conditions
Turmeric can increase the antioxidant capacity of the body
Curcumin can boost brain-derived neurotrophic factor
Curcumin may lower your risk of heart disease
Curcumin may be useful in treating Alzheimer’s disease
Turmeric has been used in China as a  treatment for depression.
It is used as  assists in remodeling of damaged skin.
Turmeric paste is used as home remedy for sunburn, and it used as  a sunscreen.
 Arthritis patients respond well to curcumin supplements
Curcumin may help delay aging and fight age-related chronic diseases
Can Turmeric Help Prevent or Treat Type 2 Diabetes
Curcumin May Help Ease Symptoms of Osteoarthritis
Curcumin May Play a Role in Treating Rheumatoid Arthritis
Turmeric Protects Your Body From Free Radicals